Íàçâàíèå: Business Grammar Builder. Äåëîâîé àíãëèéñêèé: ãðàììàòèêà (Ë.Â. Êîðóõîâà Í.Í. Íîâîñåëüöåâà)
Unit 1 present time 1
Present Simple: form A
The Present Simple is formed with the infinitive form of the verb. We add -s
for the third person singular he/she/it.
I/you/we/they work here. He/she/it works here.
Negatives are formed with do/does not. In speech and informal writing we use contractions.
I/you/we/they do not (don’t) work here.
He/she/it does not (doesn’t) work here.
Questions are formed with the auxiliary verb do/does and the infinitive.
Short answers to yes/no questions repeat the auxiliary.
A: Do you work here? A: Does she work here?
B: Yes, I do. / No, I don’t. B: Yes, she does. / No, she doesn’t.
Present Simple: uses B
We use the Present Simple for permanent facts.
In finance, ‘p/e’ stands for ‘price/earnings ratio’.
We use the Present Simple for actions and situations that are regularly true.
We offer a full range of financial products.
We use the Present Simple for actions that are repeated regularly over a long period of time, for example habits and routines.
At Union Investment about half of the customers invest a regular amount
Present Simple: time expressions C
We often use frequency adverbs with the present simple: always, often, usually, normally, sometimes, occasionally, rarely, not often, hardly ever, never.
Terry Smith, the chief executive of Collins Stewart, usually rises at 6 am.
Note the position of frequency adverbs:
Have you backed the data up?
(= made a copy on your computer)
After the verb be: I’m usually (I’m not usually) nervous before a presentation.
Adverb phrases like every day, once a year, most of the time, from time to time, now and then come at the beginning or end of the sentence:
Terry Smith travels to his New York office once a month.
We also use the Present Simple after these future time expressions: when, after, before, unless, in case, as soon as, until, by the time, the next time.
Present Continuous: form D
The Present Continuous is formed with the auxiliary verb be and the –ing
form of the main verb.
E-Commerce Service is setting up online stores, handling product delivery and even administrating Internet customers’ credit card numbers.
In speech and informal writing we use contractions. Negatives are formed with the verb be + not.
She is (she’s) working here. She’s not / She isn’t working here.
Questions are formed by inverting the subject and the auxiliary be. Short answers to yes/no questions repeat the auxiliary.
A: Are you working here?
B: Yes, I am. / No, I’m not.
Present Continuous: uses E
We use the Present Continuous to talk about temporary actions and situations that are happening now.
The action or situation may be in progress now, at the moment of speaking:
Sorry, Mr Clark can’t see you at the moment. He’s talking to a customer.
The action or situation may be happening ‘around now’, even if it is not better happening exactly at the moment of speaking:
America’s powerful online merchants are moving eastward, to the new Net market in Europe. They’re opening offices in London’s Canary Wharf …
and buying billboards in Barcelona.
The action or situation may be a current trend:
Computer games are getting better every year.
Will you back me up in the meeting?
(= support, provide evidence for)
• Present Continuous:time expressions F
../ The Present Continuous is often used with these time expressions: now, at the moment, nowadays, currently, these days, right now.
Franchising in the United States has been growing steadily since the 1950s and this concept is now providing business opportunities in more than 75 different industries.
(=spend less on)
PRACTICE PRESENT TIME
Exercise 1 (A, D)
Underline the correct words.
1 You often work / Do you often work at the weekends?
2 I don’t know / not know why your invoice hasn’t been paid. I’ll try to find out.
3 Excuse me, does you know / do you know if this is the way to the IT seminar?
4 Sorry, that projector don’t work / doesn’t work. Use this one instead.
5 A: Do you know new sales rep Marta?
B: Yes, I do. / Yes, I know.
6 A: Is that Linda Napier over there?
B: Yes, she works / she do work here.
7 I writing / I’m writing the report at the moment. It should be ready tomorrow.
8 They not replying / They’re not replying to my email. I’ll have to phone them.
9 Why is there such a long delay? What is happening? / is happen?
10 You are enjoying / Are you enjoying this conference?
11 Can Karen call you back? She’s speak / She’s speaking on another line.
12 A: Is Sarah Kennedy expecting me?
B: Yes, she’s expecting. / Yes, she is.
Exercise 2 (C)
Decide which word order is the most usual, a) or b).
1 a) I every day arrive at the office at about nine. b) Every day I arrive at the office at about nine.
2 a) I always check my email before doing anything else. b) Always I check my email before doing anything else.
3 a) This usually takes a lot of time as I receive so many. b) This takes a lot of time usually as I receive so many.
4 a) Most of the time the emails are not very urgent. b) The emails are most of the time not very urgent.
5 a) I quite often get junk email from companies I don’t know about. b) I get quite often junk email from companies I don’t know about.
6 a) I about once a month delete all my junk mail. b) I delete all my junk mail about once a month.
(= think about and then write)
Exercise 3 (D, E)
Complete this newspaper article about the Brazilian company Gerdau by using the words from the list below. Each set of words fills two spaces.
is beginning/expectations is modernizing/law
Exercise 4 (A, B)
Jane introduces Claude to João in London. Complete the dialogue by putting each
of the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the Present Simple.
Jane: Claude, (1) ….. (you / know) João? João (2) ….. (be) from brazil, but he worked with me in Paris last year. He (3) ….. (know) a lot about your line of work.
Claude: Really! Well I (4) ….. (be) very pleased to meet you, João. João: Pleased to meet you too, Claude.
Claude: So, what exactly (5) ….. (you / do)?
João: I (6) ….. (work) in the oil industry as a market analyst.
Claude: Oh, so you (7) ….. (make) decisions about levels of production?
João: No, I (8) ….. (not make) any decisions really. My job (9) ….. (involve)
studying market trends and giving advice on levels of production. Claude: Still, that’s a lot of responsibility.
João: Well, yes, but Brazil (10) ….. (not / be) a major producer like Saudi
Arabia. What about you?
Can you drop me off at the station?
(= take me in your car and leave me)
equipment to the oil industry. We (12) ..... (be) one of the biggest companies in our market.
Oh, really? And (13) ..... (you I often I come) to London?
Yes, quite often. My company (14) ..... (have) an office here. It (15) ..... (not I take) long to get here now, if you travel by Eurostar. Could I give you my card?
Could you fill this form in, please?
(=complete by writing information)