Название: Aircraft engineering (Морозова М. А.)
Жанр: Авиационные технологии и управление
Unit vi management
Management decisions have an impact on flight safety. Managerial defi- ciencies have increasingly been identified as contributing causes to accidents and incidents. This was recognized by ICAO in Flight Safety and Human Fac- tors Program which is aimed at the management of civil aviation administra- tions, operators, and decision-makers in the aviation system. The influence of management on flight safety has been often overlooked. It’s easy to illustrate the important role of management in promoting flight safety. The safety impli- cations of flawed decision-making and poor safety management are evident.
Safety through management
Aviation is a complex system and requires the precise co-ordination of a large number of human and mechanical elements for its functioning. As a sys- tem, it possesses elaborate safety defenses. Accidents in such a system are the product of the combination of a number of causal factors. Breakdowns are the consequence of human decision-making failures which occur primarily within managerial sectors.
Failures can be viewed as follows:
1. active failures, which are errors and violations having an immediate adverse effect, and are generally associated with the «end-user» (pilot, control- ler, mechanic, etc.);
2. latent failures, which are decisions or actions, the consequences of which may remain dormant for a long time.
Latent failures are present in the system well before an accident, and are most likely bred by decision-makers, regulators, managers and other people far removed in time and space from the event. Latent failures have their primary origin in errors of the decision-makers. Even in the best run organizations, a significant number of important decisions will prove to be wrong. Since these wrong decisions cannot be prevented, steps must be taken to detect them and to reduce their adverse consequences. Fallible decisions in line management may
take the form of inadequate procedures, poor scheduling or neglect of recogniz- able hazards. They may lead to inadequate skills, inappropriate rules or poor knowledge or they .may be revealed in poor planning or workmanship. Fallible decisions by line management may breed conditions, under which end-users may unknowingly perform unsafe acts. For example, deficiencies in training may translate into high workload, undue pressure under time constraints, inap- propriate perception of hazards, or ignorance of the system. These conditions may be further aggravated by environmental influences or by the presence of hazards. There is a direct relation between management deficiencies and acci- dent/incident precursors. Deficiencies in training may lead to precursors such as high workload which may co-exist with failures in maintenance and in schedul- ing which in turn may also increase workload and pressure. At the same time, failures in system control may allow pairing of inexperienced crew members or operations under unacceptable adverse conditions. Latent, failures which lead to accidents are type causes, while active failures which cause the breakdown of defenses are only token causes. Deficient training for example, is a type cause which can give rise to a variety of token causes. Remedying a type cause can eliminate a large class of token causes. One of the pillars of safety is sharing experience-collective, analyzing, discussing and publishing safety information. The air carriers and countries which are leaders in safety are always ready and open to talk about safety problems.
When asking ourselves how future occurrences can be prevented, all the factors need to be considered. Reform actions-teaching pouts to be aware of in- sidious visual illusions or the limitations of operations into contaminated run- ways, should help to prevent similar occurrences at any airfield. The pilot’s per- formance is the logical result of an inconsistent training system and the defec- tive policies of management both at the airline and the aviation administration. No flight crew can be expected to cope with situations for which they have not been properly trained.
Adequate reform action by the airline entails the following steps:
reappraisal of the airline training system and rules to provide for stabil-
the implementation of formal procedures for instructor selection and
the appointment of a flight safely officer and the establishment of a safety information system;
the re-evaluation of the dispatch and flight-following system;
the implementation of schedules which reflect a degree of realism. Verification of pilot competency is a responsibility of the authorities. Global action should be undertaken to bring the aviation system up to date
in terms of communications, navigation and approach aids, and infrastructure and weather information dissemination. The response of management to safety information is vital.
A trend is to establish autonomous authorities to operate airports and route facility services. Five of Canada’s major airports were transferred from federal government operation to 4 independent management groups known as local airport authorities. In New Zealand a civil aviation authority was estab- lished, to take over the functions of the air transport division. New Zealand had previously established publicly-owned corporations to operate a number of air- ports and a State-owned enterprise to assume control of airways services on a commercial basis. Vienna Airport Authority was transformed into a joint stock company in which 27 \% of the shares were sold to private interests to provide capital for airport expansion. Prior to tills development within Europe only the British Airports Authority, primarily London area airports, had such extensive private involvement. In Germany preparations were finalized for the establish- ment of a new government-owned, autonomous authority that was to take over responsibility for the provision of air traffic services from the Federal Adminis- tration of Air Navigation Services
1. Translate the following words from English into Russian
Undertake, relationship, precursor, co-exist, deficiency, identify, increase, increasingly, workload, inexperienced, contribute (to), contributing cause, rec- ognize, recognizable hazards, human factors, decision, unacceptable, influence, overlook, verification, competency, promote, promoting, implication, flawed decision-making, evident, precise, response, deficient, training, possess, elabo- rate, causal factors, vital, breakdown, consequence, occur, occurrence, primari- ly, remedy, error, violation, eliminate cause, adverse effect, share experience, associate (with), latent failures, remove, inconsistent, event, prove, wrong deci- sion, to be aware (of), prevent, to cope with, limitation, adequate action, detect, adverse consequences, fallible decision, contaminated, inadequate procedures, entail, poor, scheduling, ignore, ignorance, inadequate, skills, implementation, reappraisal, inappropriate, poor knowledge, reveal, poor planning; appointment, unsafe acts, high workload, undue pressure, inappropriate perception of ha- zards, aggravate, environmental influences.
2. Translate the following sentences into Russian
1) ICAO lies recognized that managerial deficiencies are contributing causes to accidents and incidents. 2) The influence of management on flight safety is great. 3) Any error may have an immediate adverse effect. 4) Very im- portant decisions may be wrong. 5) One cannot prevent wrong decisions. 6) They must take some actions to detect the wrong decisions. 7) Deficiencies in training may lead to inappropriate perception of hazards. 8) There is a direct re- lationship between management deficiencies and accident precursors. 9) You can eliminate a large number of causes. 10) The role of management in promot- ing flight safety is important. 11) We consider all these factors to prevent acci- dents and to cope with hazards. 12) The response of management to safety in- formation is vital. 13) We should undertake some actions to perfect the aviation system: communications, navigation aids, etc.
3. Answer the following questions
1) Can you illustrate the important role of management in promoting flight safety? 2) What is ICAO Flight Safety and Human Programmed aimed at? 3) Coordination of what elements does aviation require for its proper func- tioning? 4) Why do breakdowns occur? 5) Which way can failures be viewed?
6) What may fallible decisions result in? 7) Verification of pilot competency is a responsibility of the pilot, isn’t it? 8) What is one of the pillars of safety? 9) What steps may adequate reform actions entail? 10) What may deficiencies in training lead to? 11) What do they mean by type causes and token causes? 12) What, has been identified as contributing causes to accidents and incidents?
4. Translate the following words into English
Очевидный, причина, признавать, точный, следствие, решение, влияние, недостаток, содействовать, обладать, разделять, причастность, происходить, защита, тщательно продуманный, неприемлемый, поломка, нарушение, рассматривать, неблагоприятный, скрытый, устранять, без- действующий, управление, восприятие, подверженный ошибкам, не отве- чающий требованиям, пренебрежение, несоответствующий, разоблачать, ухудшать, порождать /вызывать/, ненадежный, чрезмерный, напряжен- ность, незнание, окружающая среда, символический, взаимосвязь, исправ- лять /вылечивать/, происшествие, предотвращать, сознавать, подстере- гающий /коварный/, оценивать, влечь за собой /вызывать/, осуществление, назначение, оценка /определение/, ответ, подтверждение, компетенция, предпринимать, распространение, предвестник, столп /опора/, мера
/средство/ против чего-либо, подбор, управлять, оценивать, проглядеть /не замечать/, недостаточный, исключать, важная роль, личностный фактор, требовать, правильная работа, ответственность, обучать, обучение, веро- ятно, основной, значительнее количество, плохое расписание, правила, знание, условия, наличие опасностей, сосуществовать, техническое об- служивание, публиковать, заключение.
5. Translate the following words into Russian
Trend, to establish, authority, to operate, facility, major, to transfer, gov- ernment, to operate, operation, to depend, dependent, independent, to manage, management, local, to take over, to function, a function, division, previously, public, publicly, to own, owned, enterprise, to assume, basis, transform, a joint stock company, share, to sell – sold, private, to expand, expansion, prior to, to develop, development, extensive, to involve, to finalize, to provide, provision, to prepare, preparation.
6. Answer the following questions
1) What has happened to Canada’s major airports? 2) Which services have taken over the functions of the air transport division in New Zealand? 3) Which way are airports in New Zealand operated? 4) What are the transforma- tions with airports administration in Vienna? 5) What preparations were fina- lized in Germany?
7. Memorize the following «N+N» groups
Air navigation services, management groups, civil aviation authority, air- port expansion, London area airports, route facility services, government opera- tion, airport authorities, air transport division, and airways services