Название: Aircraft engineering (Морозова М. А.)
Жанр: Авиационные технологии и управление
Unit v aviation security
The number of acts of unlawful interference (for 1992) diminished signif- icantly compared to 1991. In 1992 there went; 9 incidents; 7 of the incidents were either seizures or attempted seizures, one was an act of sabotage to a ground facility and one was an in-flight attack utilizing a ground-to-air missile. These acts of unlawful interference resulted in the deaths of 10 persons and in- juries to 123 more. Amendment 8 to Annex 17 (Security) was adopted by the ICAO Council and became effective in 1992. The amendment covers security screening of checked baggage, security control over cargo, courier and express parcels and mail, and security considerations in airport design. There was growth in the automation of cargo clearance procedures, resulting in possible clearance time of 15 min or less in some States. Several foreign carriers estab- lished electronic links with US Customs allowing their cargo to be cleared prior to the arrival of the aircraft. Flight safety in scheduled operation: improved in the number of fatal aircraft accidents per 100,000 hours flown and the number of fatal accidents per 100,000 landings. In 1992, the ICAO Accident Investiga- tion Meeting made 50 recommendations for safety improvements
Security (Annex 17, ICAO)
This Annex sets out the basis for the [CAO civil aviation security pro- grammes and seeks to safeguard civil aviation and its facilities against acts of unlawful interference. Security Manual is used worldwide by governments, air- line operators and airport administrations in their civil aviation security pro- grammed. The most important security specification in this Annex is the inspec- tion / screening of persons and baggage at international airports. The ICAO Council has recognized the importance of this specification. States which have effectively implemented inspection / screening procedures have seen a reduc- tion in unlawful seizures of aircraft. The coordinated action advocated by ICAO can ensure improvements in the safety and security of international civil avia- tion.
Aircraft and airport Security
It should be ensured that a program provides measures to be taken into the following – areas: aircraft ground security, baggage security, cargo and mail se- curity. An effective program should prevent unlawful interference with civil aviation. A safe area must be established for the boarding of all flights and pas- sengers and their hand baggage are screened prior to entering this area. Transit and transfer passengers must be screened in accordance with ICAO standards at their airports of departure. All persons and items entering this area must be au- thorized and subject to security control. It is recommended that under extreme conditions the following actions are taken: keep passengers under surveillance between check-in point and boarding gate; consider boarding passengers through one aircraft door only; identify passengers by cross check with passport or other acceptable document at the boarding gate; mark passenger’s name on boarding pass to enable cross check to be made; if a suspect is refused carriage other operators at that airport are advised accordingly. It is recommended that under normal condition the follow saving actions be taken: ensure security of baggage tags; advise passengers to lock and identify baggage; ensure that all items boarded belong to passengers who are traveling on the flight. It is rec- ommended that under extreme conditions the following actions be taken: sus- pend curbside check-in, inspect coin nets of hand baggage; search all baggage, or inspect by X-ray or other devices and do not permit cabin baggage or other items to be brought on board without search, seal all bags at time of acceptance. Everything carried by passengers is very important. More attention should be given to the problem of baggage security. Special baggage strapping machine must be introduced. In Great Britain, such machines are already used.
Monitoring passengers and luggage (Canada)
Updated airport technology can check passengers in less than 8 seconds. Detection systems are capable to screen airline passengers and their luggage. The system includes a walk-through rapid monitor and a separate luggage rapid explosives monitor (REM). A research program was initiated to develop a screening device for airline passengers and their luggage. The walk- through
rapid explosives monitor is fully automatic and easy to operate. Passengers flow is regulated by green and red traffic lights. A green light signals the passenger to enter the tunnel and a red light inside the tunnel instructs the passenger to pause at a designated location for about 6 seconds. When ties signal changes to a green light, the passenger continues through the tunnel. If explosive vapor is detected audio and visual alarms are triggered, alerting the airport authorities. It’s recommended that: the walk-through monitor is used in conjunction with other monitoring devices such as metal detectors. This system can process up to
3 passengers per minute. While passengers are being screened by the walk- through monitor then luggage can be analyzed for the presence of explosive va- por using the luggage rapid explosives monitor. Red and green lights guide the operator in the processing of each piece of luggage. Each bag is placed on a conveyor belt when the green light indicates. If explosive vapors are detected, audio and visual alarms are triggered. Used in conjunction with an X-ray sys- tem, it can screen up to 12 bags per minute. The REM systems were installed at the international airports in Canada in 1990 for tests. The results of these tests showed that the REM systems are effective. They are able of processing an ac- ceptable volume of passengers and luggage with high sensitivity and low false alarm rates, minimizing any inconvenience to the public. They greatly improve the explosive detection capabilities of airport security personnel.
1. Answer the following questions
1) Did the number of acts of unlawful interference diminish? 2) When was Amendment 8 to Annex 17 adopted? 3) When did it become effective? 4) What items does the amendment cover? 5) Did flight safety in scheduled opera- tions improve? 6) How many recommendations did the ICAO Accident Investi- gation Meeting make for safety improvements? 7) What Annex sets out the ba- sis for the ICAO civil aviation security program? 8) What’s the most important security specification in this Annex? 9) What actions are recommended under extreme conditions? 10) What actions are recommended under normal condi- tions?
2. Insert the prepositions where necessary
It is regulated
green and red lights, the passengers enter the tunnel,
they check passengers less than 8 seconds, a device airline passengers and their luggage, to pause a designated location about 6 seconds, ties signal
a green light, the passenger continues the tunnel, ties monitor is
other devices, it can process 8 passengers
minute, they are screened the monitor, the lights guide the operator the processing each piece luggage, each bag is placed a conveyor belt, they were installed 1990
3. Translate into English
Меры; защита; охрана; поиск; неисправность; уязвимость; власть; пасса-
жир; пилот; управляющий персонал; путешествие; предупреждение;
4. Translate into Russian
Airport technology; airline; luggage; walk-through; passengers; traffic lights; tunnel instructs; recommended; monitor be used; analyze; place; detect; conjunc- tion;