Íàçâàíèå: Aircraft engineering (Ìîðîçîâà Ì. À.)
Æàíð: Àâèàöèîííûå òåõíîëîãèè è óïðàâëåíèå
Unit i airport
An airport is a location where aircraft such as fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, and blimps take off and land. Aircraft may be stored or maintained at an airport. An airport consists of at least one surface such as a runway, a helipad, or water for takeoffs and landings, and often includes buildings such as hangars and terminal buildings.
Larger airports may have fixed base operator services, seaplane docks and ramps, air traffic control, passenger facilities such as restaurants and lounges, and emergency services. A military airport is known as an airbase or air station. The terms airfield, airstrip, and aerodrome may also be used to refer to airports, and the terms heliport, seaplane base, and STOL port refer to airports dedicated exclusively to helicopters, seaplanes, or short takeoff and landing aircraft. In some jurisdictions, the term airport is used where the facility is licensed as such by the relevant government organization (e.g. the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Transport Canada). Elsewhere the distinction is one of general appearance. Other jurisdictions define an airport by its having the customs offices etc expected of a port though the more general term is airport of entry.
There are many airports in our country. There are some inter national air- ports. There is an aerodrome, a terminal, some buildings and offices at the air- port; on the aerodrome there are some taxi ways and runways. Runways are
2,000 km long and more. Some taxiways are long, other taxiways are short. There are hangars there. There are beacons, too. At the; terminal there is an apron, on it there are many stands for aircraft and there are pads for helicopters. At every aerodrome, there is a meteorological office, a tower and a fire station. There is a settlement for the personnel and a hotel for passengers and crews at every airport. The airport is not far from the city. It doesn’t take much time to get to the airport. It may be a 20 – 40 minute drive by bus or train.
Frankfurt Airport is airport number 3 in Western Europe. There are about
5,000 flights to and from some 170 cities in 80 countries every week. There are
40,000 passengers a day. Boeing 747 planes land and takeoff here. This aircraft is for 490 passengers. There’s a new terminal for 24 million passengers. There are 3 landing areas for 36 aircraft. There’s a special hangar for B-747. There’s a control tower 34 m high. There are 900 air traffic specialists to control flights.
year about 300,000 aircraft take off and land here. Now the airport has modern equipment and technical buildings to control the aircraft of all types. In Orly there are four runways and a control tower controlling the traffic in the airport area. The passenger terminal building services over 10 mil passengers a year. The area of Bourge airport is smaller, there are two runways. It services over 3 mil passengers a year. At Bourge Airport there is the International Exhibition Area. Aviation and Space Equipment Show takes place every two years. Roissy is a new airport. Its area is 3,000 hectares. It services over 50 mil passengers and 2 mil tons of cargo a year. To service such a number of passenger; the air- port has five runways, four of which are parallel. 150 planes take off and land here every hour. The passenger terminal is very comfortable. There is every- thing to take a passenger from a car to the aircraft quickly and comfortably.
The modern airport is a center of most diversified services. Among the airport services are: flight assistance service, air traffic control – airport traffic control, approach control, air route traffic control; radio communications and weather service observation and forecasting. The airport has to maintain a num-
ber of supplementary services – risqué and security services. There must be an airport clime, a fire brigade, special vehicles and equipment units (water trucks, catering trucks, air freight and baggage handling units, tow tractors for moving aircraft to the apron). Other services cover maintenance, overhaul and repair of stationary and mobile equipment, the supply of electricity, water, heat and air conditioning. There is the Aircraft Maintenance Base with many maintenance specialists. There’s the fuel supply center with underground pipelines. The fa- cilities include runways, air navigation aids, and passenger and cargo terminal buildings. The airport offer: a hotel, a post office, bank offices, restaurants, snack bars, car rental firms and a number of other facilities from pharmacy to the travel office, from the barber and beauty shop to the supermarket and wait- ing lounges. There must be everything for quick passenger handling. The mod- ern passenger air terminal operates a-dozen of services. In the reception, halls at die check-in desks the suitcases are weighed and labeled. Baggage check-in fa- cilities utilize conveyors to move baggage without delays. In the terminal there’s an electronic flight information board to list departure and arrival times. Near the board (here are departure areas for passengers to board their flights. Passengers board the aircraft via loading bridges (passageways or fingers). The baggage claim carousel is on the lower floor. Flight numbers enable passengers to find their luggage location easily. It has become difficult for travelers to lo- cate various facilities and services they need. The ICAO Council has developed uniform signs for use at international airports to facilitate travelers: ARRIVALS; DEPARTURES; FIRST AID; NURSERY POINT; PASSENGER CHECK-IN; ELEVATORS; HOTEL RESERVATIONS; LOST AND FOUND; LEFT LUGGAGE and so on.
The capacity of Sheremetyevo Airport has increased. The terminal can receive up to
2,100 passengers every hour; the total capaci- ty of the complex is 15 mil passengers a year. Sheremetyevo II is situated 28 Ian north- west, of Moscow. It is the centre of interna-
tional air traffic of Russia. Sheremetyevo II
was inaugurated in 1980, its capacity is 2,100 passengers an hour, and it can handle 6 mil passengers a year. It’s a 9-storey building with 19 telescopic lad- ders (fingers). It has been assembled by the West German firm. It has the most up-to-date equipment for handling passengers. There is a new runway which can handle all types of aircraft. Radio navigation equipment and the traffic con- trol system have been modernized. The new check-in counters, computers and
10 automatic luggage conveyors cut the time needed for receiving passengers and handling luggage down to 5 minutes. The automatic baggage conveyors re- duce luggage waiting time after arrival to 7 minutes. There are halls for passen- gers, 4 restaurants, a banquet hall, bars, snack bars to cater for 1,600 passengers at a time. There’s a conference hall for 500 seats. There’s a hotel for 500 transit passengers, a modern complex for centralized fueling of aircraft, engineering communications and other facilities. There are arrivals, departures, transit and waiting halls in the terminal. The terminal has all the latest equipment to handle numerous passengers, much cargo and baggage. Boarding is done through one of the 19 passages (telescopic gangways). There are foreign airline offices, on the upper floors. There is a parking place for 1,200 cars. It takes only 35 mi- nutes to get to the centre of the city. Ticket registration and luggage weighing and labeling are computerized. There’s the computer information system to provide passengers with necessary flight information. Passengers can make a long-distance telephone call; send a cable, exchange currency, buy souvenirs and other goods at the duty-free shops. There are two sections for kids with sleeping rooms and playgrounds. Payment of shipment is accepted in cash, che-
que or letter of credit. Sheremetyevo-I, Domodedovo, Vnukovo were used for
domestic lines only; Sheremetyevo-II is one of four major airports in Europe.
There are 8 major airports in Britain – Heathrow, Gatwick, Stansted Southampton, Prestwick, Glasgow, Edinburgh and Aberdeen. Southampton airport was purchased in 1990 by BAA. The seaport has an old terminal building
which was built in 1917. Their plan is to replace
completely all the airport facilities. The plan costs $ 20 million. There will be a new passenger terminal, a control tower, car parking areas – a completely new airport will be built around the old runway. There is a station which provides
55-minute non-stop train services to London. Southampton is the UK’s fastest growing airport. They have installed an instrument landing system. A new hotel is to be bunt next to this terminal. Local people can fly to European destinations from Southampton. Southampton has become an important air freight centre. Traffic has greatly increased. They have introduced a weekly transatlantic ser- vice. Flights are to operate non-stop to Toronto. New facilities are installed in- cluding shops and catering points. Stansted is one of the most comfortable and easy to use airports. Departures are on the left, arrivals on the right. Everything you need is on one level. Passengers walk from the entrance through check-in, security and Passport Control to the departure lounge, the distance of 150 me- ters. From the departure lounge an automatic transit sate system will carry pas- sengers quickly to the apron where they’ll board their plane. Stansted is ideally located; it takes 41 minutes by train from London. There are 12 new European destinations and holiday flights are also offered.
It is 24 km west of London center. There are
125 parking stands. There’re 3 terminals. Terminal I and Terminal II are for short haul routes, Terminal III is for long haul routes. Heathrow services about 27 mil passengers a year. 45,000 people work at Heath- row, in its 260 offices. There’re 74 airlines offices
with cargo agents, salesmen, charwomen typists, me-
Gatwick is 45 km south of London. It was inaugurated in 1936. It is con- nected by railway with the center of London. Its capacity is 16 mil passengers a year, but when a new terminal was opened, its capacity has increased to 25 mil. It can handle 8 wide body aircraft simultaneously. Gatwick’s main runway is
10,165 feet long. It handles 40 aircraft movements per hour, while the northern runway handles 18 per hour.
Planning a large modern airport
The problem today is to learn to look forward at least 30 years into the fu- ture. The crowded condition of the airways is being repeated throughout the world. More passengers should be carried per aircraft unit in order not to in- crease the number of aircraft units flying. The costs of aircraft have changed radically in the past few years. Every minute of the aircraft life must be consi- dered as of great economic value. To do reasonable planning, it is necessary to know what aircraft of tomorrow may be. The second planning problem is run-
way limitations. The runway must be planned to provide a very high driving speed. Of next concern are taxiways, the avoidance of delays on a taxiway, awaiting runway clearance. The next problem is the apron. An apron layout should be studied carefully to avoid the trapping of aircraft between fingers. To eliminate apron delays the design of a round building is preferred. Air cargo is a major factor m the growth of the airport in the future. It is also of concern to handle cargo safely and quickly.
Chicago’s O’Hare Airport Expansion Subject of Heated Controversy Be- cause of Increase in Jet Noise
PUBLICATION: Chicago Tribune DATE: April 20, 2000
SECTION: Editorial; Pg. 26; Zone: N DATELINE: Chicago, Illinois
The Chicago Tribune printed an editorial about the expansion of O’Hare International Airport, its supporters and opponents. The editorial supports the expansion of the airport by adding a third runway.
The editorial reported that a group of the area’s leading urged people to look at the «big picture», which is revenue from international commercial air traffic – a «burgeoning, multibillion-dollar business». Siding in favor of airport expansion and using a sports metaphor, the editorial emphasizes that Chicago, like Atlanta and Denver, has what it takes to play in the big time. The writer warned that Chicagoans who vote against the expansion will ruin a good deal.
The editorial referred to findings in «The Future of O’Hare», a report commissioned by the Civic Committee of the Commercial Club of Chicago. The editorial quoted from the commission’s report stating that O’Hare,
The editorial also referred to projections from the Booz Allen & Hamilton consulting firm, which predicted that the Chicago area would forfeit a $10 bil- lion economic impact and 110,000 new jobs if O’Hare does not expand to ac- commodate international traffic. In addition, the Committee wants construction of the third runway to begin immediately, and that has angered opponents.
According to the editorial, opponents of the expansion strenuously object to the Committee’s recommendation to begin construction immediately and are
fed up with jet noise and doubtful of claims that newer jets are quieter. The edi- torial said that residents, local officials (including the mayor of Bensenville, the president of the Illinois Senate and the House minority leader) and a coalition of democrats and republicans (including Rep. Jesse Jackson Jr. and Governor George Ryan) want new air traffic to go to Peotone Airport.
The editorial criticized the Civic Committee for not working out a politi- cal compromise, but acknowledged that the Committee recommends that Peo- tone serve as a point-to-point airport and O’Hare expand as a domestic and in- ternational hub. And that, according to the editorial, sounds suspiciously like mutual back-scratching. Chicago Mayor Richard Daley and the Clinton admin- istration could free up the red-tape for Peotone as long as the state expanded O’Hare, which would increase noise abatement and soundproofing of homes, and «economically energize neighboring suburbs».
The article concluded by stating that the stalemate must end, and pro- posed a city-state airport authority whose job would be to oversee airport opera- tions and enlist political clout for O’Hare, which the writer termed Chicago’s number one enterprise.
Illinois Towns Neighboring O’Hare International Angry Over United Air- lines Recommendation for O’Hare Expansion
PUBLICATION: Chicago Tribune
DATE: April 20, 2000
SECTION: News; Pg. 22; Zone: N
BYLINE: Jon Hilkevitch, Rogers Worthington, John Schmeltzer
DATELINE: Chicago area, Illinois
According to the Chicago Tribune, United Airlines (the world’s largest airlines) dropped a bombshell when it recently recommended construction of a new runway at O’Hare International Airport. According to the article, United has long stated that the airport could meet the demands of increased air traffic without expansion.
The article said that Chicago officials, disagree, claiming that the new runway is not needed now in order to remain competitive. [Chicago officials are
planning a multibillion-dollar redevelopment of the airport to attract interna- tional air traffic].
In addition, the article reported that mayors of neighboring suburbs are angry about the announcement because they have been working with the city and commercial airlines on issues such as jet noise and pollution. United’s an- nouncement came as an unpleasant surprise.
The article quoted Rita Mullins, mayor of Palatine, as saying that the an- nouncement was «contrary to everything the O’Hare Noise Compatibility Commission has talked about». Arlington Heights Mayor Arlene Mulder ex- pressed adamant opposition to an added runway.
The article reported that seven runways serve air traffic at O’Hare but the simultaneous use is restricted because of weather, or the types of aircraft land- ing. If another runway were used, air controllers would be able to leave three open for landings in all types of conditions.
According to the article, United claimed that heavy air traffic and delayed flights have increased dramatically throughout the nation in the past five years, bringing us to a critical stage.
The article added that United’s announcement coincided with a report from the Civic Committee of the Commercial Club of Chicago advocating for a
«immediate planning for construction of an additional runway at O’Hare», something the Chicago Department of Aviation disagrees with.
The article concluded with a quote from Virginia Kucera, an official in Arlington Heights. «They’ll be meeting strong opposition from all the residents who live anywhere near O’Hare».
1. Translate into Russian
Distance, destination, fleet, display, carrier, night flying ban, delay, air- space, apron, stand, staff, terminal, traffic, Field, runway, taxiway, cargo, cargo building, design, capacity, move, movement, handle, charter operations, cargo flights, parking stand, short haul routes, long haul routes, service, noise, restric- tion, engine, congestion overcrowded, receive, wide body, volume, increase,
reduce, connect, gate, install, installation, storage, maintain, maintenance, cater- ing, supply, arrive, arrival, depart, departure, enter, entry, via escalators, stairs, passport Control, Customs, baggage claim area, exit, information services, lob- by, ramp, check-in desks, load, unload, loading, unloading, the public address system, loudspeaker, information board, incoming flight, to locate, flight num- ber, departure time, gate number, indicate, total capacity, finger, up-to-date, equip, equipment, hangar, handle passengers, cargo and baggage handling, for- eign airline offices, weigh, label, exchange, currency, payment, shipment, heli- copter pad, accept, in cash, risqué and security services, vehicle, unit, truck, sa- tellites, baggage handling unit, enlarge, tow tractor.
2. Answer the following questions
1) What is it necessary to know to do reasonable airport planning? 2) What are the main airport planning problems? 3) What kind of a terminal build- ing is preferred? 4) What factor is considered the first the airport in the future?
5) What restrictions are in force at some airports? 6) What are the main prob- lems of modern airports? 7) How many major airports are there in Great Brit- ain? 8) What country is well served by air? 9) What offices and services are there at the airport? 11) At which airport does Aviation and Space Equipment Show take place every two years? 12) What facilities are used for quid: passen- ger handling? 13) Where is the baggage claim carousel located? 14) What helps passengers to locate various facilities and services they need? 15) What has ICAO done to facilitate travelers?
3. Translate the following into English
Ñàìîëåòíûé ïàðê, äèñïåò÷åðñêèé ïóíêò ïîäõîäà, îáñëóæèâàòü ïàñ- ñàæèðîâ, îáñëóæèâàòü ñàìîëåò, âðåìÿ âûëåòà, íîìåð ðåéñà, çàäåðæêà, çà- ïðåò íà íî÷íûå ïîëåòû, ïðîïóñêíàÿ ñïîñîáíîñòü, øóì, îãðàíè÷åíèå, áîðòïèòàíèå, ïðèáûòèå, òåõîáñëóæèâàíèå ñàìîëåòà, ãðóçîâàÿ ñòîÿíêà ñà- ìîëåòà, çàãðóçêà, ðàçãðóçêà, ñîâðåìåííûé, îáîðóäîâàíèå, âåñ, âàëþòà, îï- ëàòà, ðåìîíò, òîïëèâî, áåç çàäåðæêè, òåëåñêîïè÷åñêèé òðàï, øèðîêîôþçå-
ëÿæíûé ðåàêòèâíûé ñàìîëåò, çàë îæèäàíèÿ, óáîðêà ñíåãà, êàìåðà õðàíå-
4. Insert prepositions where necessary
1) The airport is not far the city. 2) It doesn’t take much time to get the airport. 3) There must be everything quick passenger handling. 4) Passengers board the aircraft loading bridges. 5) There are sections kids sleeping rooms. 6) The baggage claim-area contains 4 conveyors. 7) There are some restrictions night flights.