Название: Aircraft engineering (Морозова М. А.)

Жанр: Авиационные технологии и управление

Просмотров: 1854

Unit viii world air carriers




Aeroflot was founded in 1923. Its history began with the first flight be- tween Moscow and Nizhniy Novgorod. The 9th of February is considered to be its birthday. Our country did not have any planes of its own. We flew by planes bought from Germany. We had to buy and fly on foreign planes. Aeroflot began to fly on Russian-made planes in 1935. By 1941, before the war, we had many airports, large aviation plants, flying schools, colleges and institutes. Aeroflot has done much in the war time for our victory. After the war Aeroflot devel- oped rapidly and successfully. One of the first jet passenger aircraft was put in- to service in 1956, it was TU-104. Then the new jet aircraft TU-134, TU-154, IL-62 were designed and built. Aeroflot has become one of the largest compa- nies in the world. Its routes were serviced by reliable passenger and cargo air- craft including jets of the second generation. In 1970 our country became a member of ICAO – International Civil Aviation Organization, which was estab- lished in Chicago in 1944. Cooperation with air companies of other countries within the ICAO framework enabled Aeroflot to introduce the most advanced methods of operation. This cooperation was fruitful in the joint programmed on designing, budding and introducing new planes, as well as in the training of fly- ing and technical personnel. Aeroflot traffic has become particularly heavy to our neighboring countries. Our country has supplied many countries with our aircraft, aircraft technology and helped them to master new types of aircraft. A modern training center for flight and ground personnel was opened in our coun- try. It has helped to train a great number of civil aviation specialists for many countries. Many routes have been initiated and many flights have been intro- duced. Aeroflot has seen intensive expansion in civil aviation international op- erations. Many communications agreements have been concluded between our country and other countries. New types of aircraft have been designed and built. There are new designs such as TU-204, IL-96 and some other designs. Aeroflot has also bought some Western-built airliners – A-310, Boeings. They can offer new levels of comfort and service on our domestic and international routes.

All change at Aeroflot


Commonwealth of independent states airlines (CIS AIRLINES)


The Russian airline industry has undergone massive change with Aeroflot now an operational airline. The паше «Aeroflot» denoted not only the Soviet national airline but the entire field of civil aviation activity – airline operations, АТС and Government regulatory agencies (even military transport end other aircraft belonging to the aerospace industry were also in Aeroflot colors). Now Aeroflot – Russian International Airlines – resembles an airline in the West. Its fleet has dropped to 103 operational aircraft, these include IL-62 Ms, IL-86s, IL-76s, TU-154s and TU-134; It also operates five Airbus Industry A-310-300s on lease. Former regional Aeroflot directorates have become independent oper- ators in Russia and the rest of CIS, these include Aerovolga, Baikalavia, Ko- raiavia, Magadan Airlines, Moscow Airways, Sibavia and others. This creates specific problems, they are now going through a painful process of working to- gether and establishing themselves in the new free-market environment. Shortly before the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, the Inter-State Aviation Committee (МАК) was formed to succeed the Soviet civil aviation ministry. Now there are regulatory civil aviation bodies in each of the former Soviet republics. In Rus- sia, this is the Department of Air Transport (DAT) of the Ministry of Transport (MOT). The DAT is assuming responsibility for more and more functions. The Air Register provides the registration and certification of all aircraft in Russia and the CIS is still a part of the МАК Committee. There are about 200 regis- tered enterprises in Russia, providing commercial flights, some of them operat- ing one or a small number of aircraft. There are also private operators leasing perhaps two aircraft to operate occasional charter flights. The DAT is losing control over «wild» operators which frequently neglect safety regulations. The situation is to be rectified, new regulations for licensing air transport operations in Russia have been put into effect. The new order requires licenses for passen- ger and cargo flights, airport activities and special flights. Licenses are valid for up to 5 years. A DAT commission will issue permission for particular routes to be flown. The winner will be chosen after consideration of «qualification» of flight crews and ground personnel, the quality of services offered, availability

of jet fuel and spares in operator’s storage and the level of tariffs. It is predicted that small airlines will have to unite, forming more powerful operators. The most successful carrier, other than Aeroflot, appears to be Transaero providing scheduled flights from Moscow to Norilsk, Sochi, Kiev, Almata, Minsk and Ri- ga. It has a booking office in the centre of Moscow and it has become the first domestic operator of foreign commercial aircraft in the CIS. Trans aero has been operating a pair of leased B-737-200s on domestic flights.


Fleet Modernization


The Russian commercial fleet is worn out and obsolete. Most of the air- craft are old, fuel-inefficient; ecologically dirty all right do not have enough range. When re-equipping Aeroflot gives priority to new-generation Russian airliners such as the IL-96 and TU-204 powered by Russian PS-90 A engines. The same aircraft powered by Western engines are significantly more expen- sive. There are problems even with purchasing Russian-built aircraft. The Vo- ronezh plant is able to produce only eight IL-96s a year, but the demand is higher. The average age of Russian airliners is about 20 years. The older exam- ples of earlier types are retired. New independent airlines do not have enough funds to buy new aircraft, so they are purchased for them by the state. The level of financing available is decreasing. Less money is allocated for buying new aircraft. The lightest priority is being given to extending aircraft livers. Small regional and utility aircraft were imported, mostly from Poland and former Czechoslovakia, about 5,000 such aircraft are operational in Russia, but there is a great problem – severe shortage of spare parts which now have to be bought with hard currency. Now the Government cannot afford it and a percentage of aircraft made in the former socialist countries are grounded. To improve the sit- uation, the AN-38 and AN-3, utility aircraft will substitute the AN-28 and AN-2 license-built in Poland. The Bc-32 and IL-112 will be ordered instead of the Czech L-410 and L-610.

Fuel Shortage


Now the internal price of jet fuel in the CIS is approaching the interna- tional level. Ticket prices have led to a sharp decrease in passengers – 30\% in the first half of 1993. The situation is even worse in Ukraine and Belarus de- pendent on oil imports from Russia. The number of flights leaving Kharkov air- port day has dropped from about 100 to three while flights from regional air- ports to Moscow and Kiev have been suspended. Hundreds of aircraft remain idle on the ground; some are charted to foreign airlines or are operating ad hoc flights abroad for local entrepreneurs. In Belarus, the national carrier Bolivia has suspended practically all of its international flights. Airport authorities de- mand cash from aircrews for maintenance and refueling at international landing points. Only some of the operators using their resourcefulness manage to re- main profitable and stay reliable. The Volga-Dnepr cargo carrier flying on AN-

124 Ruslans worldwide is a good example! Three basic principles of the com- pany’s activity are: healthy competition, extremely high quality and collabora- tion and partnership with maximum convenience for customers. This is the best way to prove that Russia remains a great aviation power. Volga-Dnepr has found itself a successful market.






Lufthansa was formed in 1926 from the two survivors of some 30 airlines operating in Germany between 1919 and that date; the new merger was called

«Deutsche Luft Hansa». It began operations with 19 different types of aircraft. First scheduled service was made in 1926 from Berlin to Zurich. It flew non- stop Berlin – New York in 24 hours and 36 minutes in 1938 with 26 passengers and a crew of 4. The end of the World War II saw a temporary end to Lufthansa activities, but in 1953 «Luftag» was founded and in 195 its name was changed to «Lufthansa». Four Constellations were purchased, later in 1958 – 1959 nine Viscounts were brought into service and the first jetliner Boemg-707 was re- ceived in I960. In 1965 the company was the sixth in western international air

transport tables. In 1970 it was the first of European airlines to use Boeing-747. In 1974 the DC-10 was added to the fleet and in 1975 it ordered 3 airbuses. One jumbo is completely cargo and a second is converted to take an increased freight-load with less passenger capacity. The Lufthansa Training Centre was opened in 1973. The Frankfort-Moscow route extended to Tokyo is the busiest.


Midway Airlines. Chicago


Midway Airlines was born in 1979. It has been a low fare carrier with the unique advantage of Midway Airport to serve the Nation’s second city – Chica- go. Midway has become the nation’s first business class airline. The Midway fleet will get restyled interiors with 4-abreast seating and large overhead bins for carry-on luggage. At airports and in each aircraft there will be an extra air- line repress iterative called the passenger service coordinator helping to pass on messages to the en route business travelers. The Midway Airport terminal will, get a new look. Departure lounges will be upgraded and some will be equipped with phones and desks for transiting passengers. A frequent flyer program will be established. New uniforms for ticket agents and flight attendants will be in- troduced; Chicago government has provided much money for the job on the airport. The first section of a new terminal building has been completed; six new hangars will be built. Work on a new runway has begun. Midway Airlines’ offices will be reconstructed. The main access road to the city from the airport will be straightened out ease traffic flow. There will be a new parking area. The airport will receive its own subway stop on a new line. The main passenger terminal with 28 jet ways will be completed and the old terminal torn down and upgraded navigation aids will be installed, new fueling facilities will be built and 9 hangars will be completed.


Airlines Fleet


World’s air carrier fleet grew during last 10 year period. The number of commercial air transport aircraft in service worldwide increased by over 44 \% between 1982 and 1991. There were important changes in the composition of the fleets of ICAO Contracting States. The number of jet aircraft increased, tur-

boprop aircraft increased. On the other hand, the number of piston-engine air- craft declined by about 45 \%, and now constitutes only about 4 \% of the total fleet. Relatively few aircraft were ordered during periods when air carriers ex- perienced low traffic growth and poor economic results. Manufacturers deli- vered 785 aircraft during 1992. Orders for new aircraft fell by nearly 10 \%. A number of aircraft orders were cancelled. Three major aircraft manufacturers are Airbus Industry, Boeing and Me Donnell Douglas. Boeing and Douglas plan to reduce their production rates by about 40 \% from the peak production rates reached in 1992. Airbus reduced its production projections by 15 \%.


Fleet Composition


The number of jet aircraft increased to 10,750 rising from 74 to 78 per cent of the fleet while turboprop aircraft increased to 2,590 or from 17 to 19 \%. The number of piston-engined aircraft declined by 50 \% and now constitutes only 3 \% of the total fleet. In addition to 13,790 fixed-wing civil aircraft there were 130 rotary-wing civil aircraft with a maximum takeoff mass of 9,000 kg and more, and 29,710 fixed- and rotary-wing civil aircraft of lesser mass, for a total of about 43,630 fixed and rotary-wing. Civil aviation aircraft registered with commercial air transport operators in ICAO Contracting States excluding the CIS (the Commonwealth of Independent States) and China.


Major Airport projects


During 1992 new international airports were opened in Germany and Ca- meroon. In Germany it was Munich, it required 7 years of construction. Con- struction continued on a number of other new airports. Planning and prelimi- nary work continued for Hong Kong, it was opened in 1997. In Europe a new Oslo airport was to open in 1999. Major airport expansion projects were under way in all regions. Projects completed during the year included second passen- ger terminal at Jakarta and for new Tokyo International, Narita, in France new terminals; a second terminal for Manchester and a major redevelopment project, including a new midfield terminal at Pittsburgh International. There are 25 larg- est airports in the world in terms of passengers handled (a total of 711 mm pas-

sengers in 1991). Tokyo-Haneda ranks 4th in terms of passengers handled, the first – Chicago, second – Dallas, third – Los Angeles. London-Heathrow re- mained the busiest airport in the world in terms of passenger traffic followed by Frankfurt and Paris – Charles de Gaulle.


World’s Airports problems


The first World Assembly of the Airports Association Council Interna- tional (AAC1) was held in New Orleans in 1991. ICAO Council President Dr. Assad Kotaite stated during this Assembly that airports have become «front and centre in our effort to combat» unlawful interference. ICAO has taken several initiatives to bolster world-wide aviation security. The most recent development was the establishment of ли international legal instrument to facilitate the detec- tion of plastic explosives. Each State is required to prohibit and prevent the manufacture in its territory of unmarked explosives. ICAO is finishing a stan- dardized aviation security training package which will allow uniform imple- mentation of security standards. The revised security manual will be soon avail- able. The Conference on Airport and Route Facility Management (CARFM) was held in Montreal in 1991. It reviewed the economic situation of airports and route facilities. An increasingly large proportion of airports will be affected by congestion. The introduction of new technology may ease the situation to a large extent. The implementation of the global satellite-based communications, navigation and surveillance systems will have a major impact. ICAO will moni- tor and co-ordinate the global harmonization of the future systems. Congestion will be most effectively dealt with through co-ordination between airlines, air- port administrations and in the will of States to take actions and measures and to make commitments to infrastructure investments. Industry trends such as pri- vatization can create difficulties and problems for airport operators. Global air transport colloquium will be held in Montreal to examine future regulatory structures and arrangements; ICAO is increasingly involved in the problems of noise and other environmental concerns. ICAO is devoting increased resources to environmental matters. More  stringent standards in engine emission and noise are required. ICAO and AACl’s body met annually to discuss issues of

mutual concern. AACI and its member airports continue to participate fully in the work: of ICAO, they meet with ICAO’s Secretary General and Council President.


Route network


In 1992 the airlines established about J760 new direct air links between city-pairs, at the same time eliminating 1,230 links. This resulted in a net in- crease of 530 city-pairs linked by direct air service. Services operated by pas- senger aircraft accounted for 96 per cent of the new air links. In 1992 a number of new direct scheduled air service links were established between States with significantly improved political relations. New routes were also opened which allowed some air carriers to reduce their flight times over a few long haul routes. For example, the new routing through Russian Far East airspace is sav- ing airlines of flying time on the route between Tokyo and New York, and the flights between Seoul and Detroit. Some European airlines have got approval to fly over China by a more direct route between Hong Kong and Europe cutting their flying time by some 90 min.


Airline service levels


Some airlines introduced a fourth class «Middle Class» to cater for pas- sengers paying the full normal economy fare. A number of major international airlines upgraded the quality of service on their passenger flights, including the offer of  integrated on-board entertainment and communication systems, in- flight phones, individual videos and faster check-in or check-out and one airline started to offer aerobic videos to passengers on long haul flights. A number of air carriers introduced their own frequent flyer programmer. In the US the elec- tronic ticket delivery network (ETDN) was introduced to enable travel agents to issue tickets to their clients through shared facilities at airports, in banks, local shopping centers, etc. ETDNs were expected to become operational in 1993. On charter flights Finnair provides special reading material for children and on longer flights there are music and video programs for them. On long-distance flights first-time flyers between the ages; of 5 and 15 are invited to become

members of Finnair junior club. To enjoy the trip they provide a range of news- papers. Headphones can be rented for a fee oi 10 Finnish mark, on scheduled flights they are distributed without charge. Beer and wine are served free of charge in economy class on scheduled flights, but champagne and other alco- hol; rages are charged for according to the bar tariff list. Drinks are charged for on charter flights, as are refreshments on domestic routes. Earphones for listen- ing to the music or movie-sound back are distributed at the beginning of the flight. Channel selection and volume control buttons are on the arm-rest of the seat. Music programs are available. Passengers can change music program channels to suit their taste. They serve low-priced taxi duty-free articles on flights. In some countries advance passenger information systems were in oper- ation whereby passengers’ passport details are electronically conveyed to the authorities of the country of destination prior to arrival of the aircraft, allowing expedited clearance upon arrival. By the end of 1992 over 60 mm machine readable passports were in use. The issuance of machine readable visas by sev- eral States brings benefits for States. A number of the airlines increased restric- tions on smoking on board. The ICAO Assembly studies the safety aspects of banning smoking on board and promotion of a smoke-free travel environment on all international flights. All States take measures to restrict smoking and ban it.


Bent-a-Peoke for passengers (FINNA1R)


Firnnair continues to improve’ its service, now passengers can rent a mo- bile phone in Helsinki. Passengers can pick up a handy phone as they arrive in or leave Helsinki, at the desk in the airport arrivals lobby. The phone is returned to the same desk. Phones may be reserved when making flight reservations. A rentable pocket phone helps make life easier to foreign businessmen coming to Finland. There are some 300,000 mob. He phones hi Finland. For Firnnair Business Class passengers and passengers buying a normal price ticket in. Fin- land the rental is 40 Finnish marks a day, for other passengers 80 marks a day.

Computer reservation systems


Work continues on the development of a number of «mega» computer reservation systems (CRSs). Work continues in ICAO on the development of a worldwide code of conduct for the regulation and operation of CRSs and the ICAO Council adopted the code for the potential worldwide application by ICAO Contracting States. Meanwhile, in Europe, the European Community in- itiated extensive reviews of their own codes adopted in 1989 including consid- eration of whether and how to include non-scheduled operations.




1. Translate the following words into Russian


To undergo changes, to belong, to resemble, fleet, to drop, on lease, inde- pendent, to create, to go through, environment, to collapse, to succeed, certifica- tion, enterprise, to lose, to neglect safety regulations, to rectify the situation, to put into effect, to require, to be valid, to issue, permission, to consider – consid- eration, to offer, services, availability, to offer services, convenience, spares, to predict, power – powerful, carrier, domestic operator, foreign aircraft, leased aircraft, domestic flights, worn out fleet, obsolete aircraft, inefficient, dirty, range, re-equip, priority, to purchase, Russian-built aircraft, to demand – a de- mand, average age, on average, to retire, to decrease, to allocate money, to ex- tend aircraft lives, to import, shortage, to afford, to ground aircraft, to substi- tute, to suspend flights, to remain idle, reliable, to remain profitable.


2. Answer the following questions


1) What did the name «Aeroflot» denote? 2) Has its fleet dropped greatly?


3) Can you name any independent operators? 4) What problems did indepen- dent operators create? 5) Why is this process of working together painful? 6) When was МАК formed? 7) How many enterprises are registered in Russia to provide commercial flights? 8) Are there any private operators to operate char- ter flight? 9) What is the problem with «wild» operators? 10) Which way is the situation to be rectified? 11) How long are licenses valid? 12) Are there any successful carriers? 13) What is the problem of the Russian fleet? 14) Why is

there the problem of purchasing Russian-built aircraft? 15) What is the average age of Russian airliners?


3. Translate the following into English


Самолеты нового поколения, покупать, дефицит, запчасти, заменять самолеты, снижаться, подвергаться изменениям, создавать проблемы, предприятия, безопасность, вводить новые правила, требовать, исправ- лять, действительный, давать разрешение, объединяться, устаревший, за- висимый, независимый, количество рейсов, заправка, техобслуживание, надежный, выгодный, успешный, запрещать полеты, приостанавливать полеты, сотрудничество, высокое качество, грузовой перевозчик, покупка самолетов, отечественные самолеты, иностранный, изъять из обращения, выдача свидетельства, требование, брать в аренду, /быть в состоянии/ по- зволить себе, ассигновать, износ, окружающая среда, оставаться, пренеб- регать, наличие, средний возраст, в среднем, продлить, ввозить, приори- тет, принадлежать, переоборудовать.


4. Discuss the following problems:


Airports problems, computer revision, route network, fleet modernization in Russia, fuel shortage.


5. Translate the following sentences into Russian


World Assembly; front and centre in our effort to combat; development; revised security manual; European Community; non-scheduled passenger services; eli- minating; Russian Far East; passengers on long haul;