Название: Aircraft engineering (Морозова М. А.)
Жанр: Авиационные технологии и управление
Unit vii international civil aviation organizations
International Civil aviation organizations. ICAO. How ICAO Began. The Activities of ICAO
In 1889 in Paris a conference was held concerning the activity of hot-air balloons. There were many international air conferences. In 1919 the Interna- tional Commission for Air Navigation was created with 33 member states. There were attempts to develop civil aviation cooperation in the world. In 1928 in Washington International Conference on Civil Aeronautics was held to cele- brate the 25th Anniversary of the Wright Brothers’ flight. In 1937 there was the International Technical Conference in Lima. In 1947, on the 4th of April, Inter- national Civil Aviation Organization was established by the 1944 Chicago Convention. Edward Warner was its first Council President (1945-1957). In
1958 the Warner Awards were established by ICAO for outstanding contribu- tions to the development of international civil aviation. The Council President was Dr. Assad Kotaite. I ICAO is headquartered in Canada, Montreal. There arc almost 180 member-states. There are over 1,000 specialists in the staff. In 1970 the USSR became the member of ICAO. In 1984 Council President Dr. Assad Kotaite visited our country. He discussed the problem of the technical assis- tance and the routes over the Pacific Ocean and the work of our specialists in the ICAO Secretariat. He discussed the training courses as well. It is difficult to describe all of ICAO’s many activities. ICAO solves many problems on the in- ternational level. The main task of ICAO is to sum up the results of civil avia- tion development and to exchange this information with, other countries. ICAO is to reach, the highest level of safety in the international civil aviation, its main task is the flight safety. ICAO specialists research civil aviation equipment, both airborne and ground, they work on new landing systems. They develop services for safe operations. They help to equip airports, install aviation equip- ment, and train aviation specialists. ICAO provides specialists. ICAO provides special recommendations and procedures. ICAO is doing much to make the air more clear in the world. There are special standards to reduce noise, new quie- ter aircraft appear.
ICAO has set up standards for air crew and controllers. There are other tasks: to work out types of future aircraft, to develop forecast system, to train flight and ground personnel, to provide navigation information, to set modern equipment; the task is to replace the present Instrument. Landing System; (pro- posals for a new landing system are examined); to develop technical specifica- tions, uniform rules and procedures. The most complex problem is the airport. ICAO studies the problem of application of space technology in civil aviation.
ICAO is taking steps to combat air piracy. The working languages of
ICAO are English, French, Spanish and Russian. ICAO has six regional offices
– in Bangkok, Cairo, Dakar, Lima, Mexico City and Paris.
Safety is essential
All ICAO regulations are aimed at safety. ICAO issues documents for ICAO Contracting States to guarantee safety. All of these ICAO documents and activities concern safety. Accident prevention is a specialized activity of ICAO. It is defined as the discovery and elimination or avoidance of hazards. ICAO has developed accident prevention programmed (ADREP) – accident/incident Data Reporting. All ICAO States make reports on their accidents and get assis- tance. The task of AD REP system is to provide States with information regard- ing recent accidents. ICAO has published an Accident Prevention Manual which describes management techniques for preventing accidents. It provides practical examples of successful accident-prevention practices. Accidents Pre- vention Seminars are held regularly.
Euro control is the European organization working for air navigation safe- ty. It was created in 1963 for better service of European airspace. The number of fast high flying civil aviation aircraft is rapidly increasing, this bail created a number of difficulties; new operating methods and the use of advanced technol- ogy are the main of them. Some European countries have signed the agreement of cooperation for the; safety of air navigation having agreed to organize com- mon air traffic services in the upper airspace.
IATA (International air transport association)
IATA was founded in 1945. Now IATA is one of the major international civil aviation organizations muting world airlines. The main objective of IATA is to contribute to safe and regular development civil aviation and to coopera- tion of world airlines. At present, IATA is concentrated on the safety problem. In 1985 there were 135 airlines representing more than 100 countries. IATA has
5 Committees: financial, legal, medical, technical and traffic. The Technical Committee considers the problem of safety, standardization of aviation equip- ment, training of flying personnel, communications, meteorology, aerodromes, navigation aids, etc. There are 560 specialists in IATA Secretariat. IATA’s main offices are in Montreal and Geneva. The official, languages of IATA are English, French and Spanish. IATA is considered to be the second hi its impor- tance world Institute of international economic cooperation in air transport after ICAO. IATA has a program of assistance to airlines of developing countries es- pecially in the field of aviation personnel training. Flight safety experts, avia- tion specialists and scientists of the member states exchange information and ideas on the safety problem. It is important that all IATA members report their accidents for investigating and preventing them in future. Regular and’ orga- nized Information exchange is actual. IATA hopes that free exchange will soon become possible on a truly international basis. Information should be given on flying, taxiing and on-the-ground incidents including maintenance deficiencies. Everything possible must be done to reduce the number of accidents. Aeroflot is now a member of IATA, it conforms to the IATA’s standards, procedures and documents. It is of great importance for Aeroflot to study all the problems which IATA deals with.
1. Answer the following questions:
1) When was a conference concerning the activity of hot-air balloons held? 2) When was the International Commission for Air Navigation created?
3) Where was the 25th Anniversary of the Wright Brothers first flight celebrat- ed? 4) When and where was the International Technical Conference held? 5)
When was ICAO established? 6) Who was the first Council President of ICAO?
7) What awards were established for outstanding contributions to the develop- ment of international civil aviation? 8) Where is ICAO headquartered? 9) How many states are members of ICAO? 10) When did our country become a mem- ber of ICAO? 11) What problems does ICAO solve? 12) What is the main task of ICAO? 13) What standards has ICAO set up? 14) What, documents has ICAO pub ached? 15) When was Euro control created?
2. Discuss the following problems:
Modern airport, security, fares / rates, airlines, airlines I bet, Customs, rules of passenger transportation, international civil aviation organizations.
3. Translate into Russian:
To reduce noise, to replace, to combat air piracy, to issue documents, to concern safety, to sign the agreement, to contribute to cooperation, to conform to standards, to deal with problems, accident prevention, elimination, avoid- ance, maintenance deficiencies.
4. Insert prepositions where it is necessary:
The number accidents, to work new landing systems, proposals a new landing system, all regulations are aimed safety, all documents concern safety, avoidance hazards, to make reports accidents, to provide states information re- garding accidents, techniques preventing accidents, a program assistance air- lines developing countries, to exchange information the safety problem.
5. Memorize the following «N+N» groups:
Maintenance deficiencies, safety problem, aviation equipment, navigation aids, aviation personnel training, flight safety experts, information exchange, civil aviation cooperation, international civil aviation organizations, airlines fleet.