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Unit 5 past and present 1




 Present Perfect: form A


 The Present Perfect is formed with the present tense of the auxiliary verb have and the past participle. In speech and informal writing we use contractions (ve and s).

I/we/you/they have (ve) gone. He/she/it has (s) gone.


 Negatives are formed with not.

I/we/you/they have not (havent) gone. He/she/it has not (hasnt) gone.


 Questions are formed by inverting the subject and the auxiliary verb have.

Short answers to yes/no questions repeat the auxiliary.

A: Have they gone?

B: Yes, they have./No, they havent.


 Present Perfect: uses B


 In general, we use the Present Perfect to talk about a present situation which is connected to the past.


 There may be a present situation that started in the past.

Ive lived here for about ten years.

Ive known Mary since we worked together in Spain.


 There may be a series of actions that happened in our life up to now.

Ive often been to Singapore.

Ive seen a lot of changes around here.


 There may be a result in the present of the past event.

Sorry, I think Ive lost the file. My computer has crashed.


In this case we are explaining the current importance of the past event. When it happened is not important and is not mentioned.



The report deals with our future strategy.

(= is about)

 Present Perfect: time expressions C


 We use ever and never to ask and talk about our general life experience.

Have you ever spoken in front of a large audience? (in all your life up to now)

Ive never worked abroad, but next year I might be based in Paris.


If the answer to the question is Yes then we continue to give more information about the specific events by using verbs in the Past Simple.

A: Have you ever spoken in front of a large audience?

B: Yes, I have. Last year I went to a sales conference in Berne and I

gave a presentation.


 The Present Perfect is often used with already and yet. Already is normally used in affirmative sentences:

Knapp, CEO of US cable company NTL, insists that NTL has already made

75\% of its planned investment to deliver broadband for mobile phone users.


Yes is used in questions and negatives, and suggests that something has not happened although we expect it to happen.

Have you finished the report yet?

Sorry, I havent finished the report yet. Ill try to finish it this afternoon.


 We use just describe something that happened a short time ago.


Ive just spoken to him on the phone and he says hell be here at 9.30



 The Present Perfect is often used with time expressions that refer to unfinished time. In other words the time period includes the present. Common expressions are: this morning, today, this month, so far, up to now, recently, during/in the past month, over the last few years, etc.

The Russian Central Bank announced on Thursday that its gold and

currency reserves have increased in the past week by $300 million.


 Some time expressions can be used with the Present Perfect or Past Simple, depending on when you are speaking:

Have you spoken to Sue this morning? (it is now 11:00 am: the morning hasnt finished)

Did you speak to Sue this morning? (it is now 3:00 pm: the morning has



 We use for and since with the Present Perfect to refer to periods of time.



I have to call on a client this afternoon.

(= visit)

A: How long has Tom worked here?

B: Hes worked here for three months./ Hes worked here since the be- ginning of May.


For describes the length of the time period. Since describes the point when the time period started.

We have been in business for 37 years, so the Internet to is just another way of collecting orders says Lands Ends international vice president Sam


UPS became a worldwide Olympics sponsor in 1994, and since then it has handled the Atlanta games in 1996 and the 1998 Japan winter games.


 Been (to) and gone (to) D


 If we have been to a place, we went there and have now returned. If we have gone to a place, we went there but have not yet returned.

Shes been to visit our suppliers. Everything seems to be OK. (She has come back)

Shes gone to visit our suppliers. I hope everything will be OK. (She is still there)



Have you come across a company called TMN?

(= discovered by chance)



Exercise 1 (B)

Look at the paired sentences below. Match each one with situation a) or b).



1 Inflation has fallen by 1 \%.


2 Inflation fell by 1\%.


a) Two years ago it was 4\%. Last year it was


b) Last month it was 4\%. This month it is



3 I think Ive lost the file.


4 Sorry, I lost the file.


a) I cant find the file. I wonder where I put it.

b) The file has gone and Ill never find it.


5 Has Jane called this morning?


6 Did Jane call morning?


a) Jane promised to call this morning. Its 11 am.

b) Jane promised to call this morning. Its 2 pm.


7 Sales improved.


8 Sales have improved.


a) Last year sales were poor. This year they are better.

b) Sales were poor initially. A year later they were better.


9 How long have you worked here?

10 When did you start working here?


a) In 1999.


b) Since 1999.



Exercise 2 (C)

Complete the sentences with a suitable time expression from the list below.


already yet ever never just for since always


1 The goods will be with you soon. Theyve .. left our warehouse.

2 Ive .. had a great idea! Why dont we launch a new range of colours?

3 Weve known each other .. more than twenty years.

4 Ive .. used my credit card on the Internet. I dont think its safe.



Can you deal with this invoice, please?

(= take the necessary action)

5 I havent had a chance to speak to Magda .. , but Im sure shell agree.

6 Ive .. worked in insurance, ever since leaving university.

7 Im sorry he hasnt called you back. Hes been in a meeting .. lunchtime.

8 Have you .. been to São Paulo? Its completely different from Rio.


Exercise 3 (A, B, C)












Read this text about the performance of the Ford car company. Complete the text with the verbs from the list below, using the Present Perfect.


Ford: the road to recovery

Although Ford (1) operating profits of our $7 billion in its American market this year, the story in Europe (2) very different. Its market share (3) from 12\% six years ago to only 9\% now. The truth is that rivals like Volkswagen and Renault (4) much better over recent years. They (5) costs and (6)

exciting and highly successful new models. In contrast, Ford (7) its

large saloon, the

Scorpio, which was not selling well. But Ford (8) a lot more success at the higher end of the market. Over the last few years it (9) a lot of money buying brands such as Jaguar, Aston Martin and Land Rover, and these models have much higher profit margins. It (10) some time to sort out the problems at Jaguar in particular, but its now a successful part of the business.



Exercise 4 (A)

Complete the sentences by putting the verb in brackets into a form of the Present

Perfect. Use contractions where possible.


1 Are you sure it isnt working? .. (you / try) it?

2 I .. (never / see) such a boring presentation.

3 Luckily, our customers .. (not / complain) about the price rise.

4 We .. (already / spend) quite a lot of money on this project.

5 .. (they / reply) to our last email?

6 I .. (not / get) the figures to hand can I call you back later?



Weve been dealing with FedCo for a long time.

(= doing business with)

7 Unemployment .. (go / up) by 2 \% since January.

8 Im sorry she isnt here. She .. (just / leave).

9 Their shares .. (fall) by 15\% since the merger.

10 .. (you / ever / take) the Eurostar to Brussels?


Exercise 5 (C, D)

Read this email from Steve, the Purchasing manager of a UK importer, who is in Poland on a business trip. Complete the email by choosing the correct alternative from A, B, C or D below.




Steve McGinlay


Mike Evans


18 May







Message: Mike

Sorry I havent contracted you (1) .. last week, but Ive been very busy. Ive (2) .. to Katowice in the south-west of Poland (3) .. a few days,

and Ive (4) .. returned to my hotel in Warsaw, from where Im sending

this email. I visited several firms when I was in Katowice and one of them looks quite promising. Ive (5) .. seen their factory, and Ive got some product samples to show you.

Unfortunately I havent met the guy in charge (6) .. . He wasnt there

hes (7) .. to Gdansk and should be back next week.

So, the trip has been quite successful (8) .. . Have you (9) .. been to Central Europe? Everything is changing very fast Ive (10) .. seen so much building work going on. Anyway, Ill email you again later in the week to let you know whats happening.

Regards, Steve


The report deals with e-commerce in SE Asia.

(= is about)


1 A for

B since

C just

D so far

2 A going

B gone

C being

D been

3 A for

B since

C already

D so far

4 A now

B been

C just

D so far

5 A yet

B already

C been

D gone

6 A just

B already

C now

D yet

7 A going

B gone

C being

D been

8 A so far

B yet

C just

D now

9 A yet

B since

C ever

D never

10 A yet

B since

C ever

D never



I couldnt do without my personal assistant.

(= function/manage without)

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