Íàçâàíèå: Business Grammar Builder. Äåëîâîé àíãëèéñêèé: ãðàììàòèêà (Ë.Â. Êîðóõîâà Í.Í. Íîâîñåëüöåâà)
Unit 5 past and present 1
Present Perfect: form A
The Present Perfect is formed with the present tense of the auxiliary verb have and the past participle. In speech and informal writing we use contractions (‘ve and ‘s).
I/we/you/they have (‘ve) gone. He/she/it has (‘s) gone.
Negatives are formed with not.
I/we/you/they have not (haven’t) gone. He/she/it has not (hasn’t) gone.
Questions are formed by inverting the subject and the auxiliary verb have.
Short answers to yes/no questions repeat the auxiliary.
A: Have they gone?
B: Yes, they have./No, they haven’t.
Present Perfect: uses B
In general, we use the Present Perfect to talk about a present situation which is connected to the past.
There may be a present situation that started in the past.
I’ve lived here for about ten years.
I’ve known Mary since we worked together in Spain.
There may be a series of actions that happened in our life up to now.
I’ve often been to Singapore.
I’ve seen a lot of changes around here.
There may be a result in the present of the past event.
Sorry, I think I’ve lost the file. My computer has crashed.
In this case we are explaining the current importance of the past event. When it happened is not important and is not mentioned.
(= is about)
Present Perfect: time expressions C
We use ever and never to ask and talk about our general life experience.
Have you ever spoken in front of a large audience? (in all your life up to now)
I’ve never worked abroad, but next year I might be based in Paris.
If the answer to the question is Yes then we continue to give more information about the specific events by using verbs in the Past Simple.
A: Have you ever spoken in front of a large audience?
B: Yes, I have. Last year I went to a sales conference in Berne and I
gave a presentation.
The Present Perfect is often used with already and yet. Already is normally used in affirmative sentences:
Knapp, CEO of US cable company NTL, insists that NTL has already made
75\% of its planned investment to deliver broadband for mobile phone users.
Yes is used in questions and negatives, and suggests that something has not happened although we expect it to happen.
Have you finished the report yet?
Sorry, I haven’t finished the report yet. I’ll try to finish it this afternoon.
We use just describe something that happened a short time ago.
I’ve just spoken to him on the phone and he says he’ll be here at 9.30
The Present Perfect is often used with time expressions that refer to unfinished time. In other words the time period includes the present. Common expressions are: this morning, today, this month, so far, up to now, recently, during/in the past month, over the last few years, etc.
The Russian Central Bank announced on Thursday that its gold and
currency reserves have increased in the past week by $300 million.
Some time expressions can be used with the Present Perfect or Past Simple, depending on when you are speaking:
Have you spoken to Sue this morning? (it is now 11:00 am: the morning hasn’t finished)
Did you speak to Sue this morning? (it is now 3:00 pm: the morning has
We use for and since with the Present Perfect to refer to periods of time.
A: How long has Tom worked here?
B: He’s worked here for three months./ He’s worked here since the be- ginning of May.
For describes the length of the time period. Since describes the point when the time period started.
‘We have been in business for 37 years, so the Internet to is just another way of collecting orders’ says Lands Ends’ international vice president Sam
UPS became a worldwide Olympics sponsor in 1994, and since then it has handled the Atlanta games in 1996 and the 1998 Japan winter games.
Been (to) and gone (to) D
If we have been to a place, we went there and have now returned. If we have gone to a place, we went there but have not yet returned.
She’s been to visit our suppliers. Everything seems to be OK. (She has come back)
She’s gone to visit our suppliers. I hope everything will be OK. (She is still there)
(= discovered by chance)
PRACTICE PAST AND PRESENT
Exercise 1 (B)
Look at the paired sentences below. Match each one with situation a) or b).
Exercise 2 (C)
Complete the sentences with a suitable time expression from the list below.
already yet ever never just for since always
1 The goods will be with you soon. They’ve ….. left our warehouse.
2 I’ve ….. had a great idea! Why don’t we launch a new range of colours?
3 We’ve known each other ….. more than twenty years.
4 I’ve ….. used my credit card on the Internet. I don’t think it’s safe.
(= take the necessary action)
5 I haven’t had a chance to speak to Magda ….. , but I’m sure she’ll agree.
6 I’ve ….. worked in insurance, ever since leaving university.
7 I’m sorry he hasn’t called you back. He’s been in a meeting ….. lunchtime.
8 Have you ….. been to São Paulo? It’s completely different from Rio.
Exercise 3 (A, B, C)
Ford: the road to recovery
Although Ford (1) …… operating profits of our $7 billion in its American market this year, the story in Europe (2) …… very different. Its market share (3) …… from 12\% six years ago to only 9\% now. The truth is that rivals like Volkswagen and Renault (4) …… much better over recent years. They (5) …… costs and (6)
…… exciting and highly successful new models. In contrast, Ford (7) …… its
large saloon, the
Scorpio, which was not selling well. But Ford (8) …… a lot more success at the higher end of the market. Over the last few years it (9) …… a lot of money buying brands such as Jaguar, Aston Martin and Land Rover, and these models have much higher profit margins. It (10) …… some time to sort out the problems at Jaguar in particular, but it’s now a successful part of the business.
Exercise 4 (A)
Complete the sentences by putting the verb in brackets into a form of the Present
Perfect. Use contractions where possible.
1 Are you sure it isn’t working? ….. (you / try) it?
2 I ….. (never / see) such a boring presentation.
3 Luckily, our customers ….. (not / complain) about the price rise.
4 We ….. (already / spend) quite a lot of money on this project.
5 ….. (they / reply) to our last email?
6 I ….. (not / get) the figures to hand – can I call you back later?
(= doing business with)
7 Unemployment ..… (go / up) by 2 \% since January.
8 I’m sorry she isn’t here. She ….. (just / leave).
9 Their shares ….. (fall) by 15\% since the merger.
10 ….. (you / ever / take) the Eurostar to Brussels?
Exercise 5 (C, D)
Read this email from Steve, the Purchasing manager of a UK importer, who is in Poland on a business trip. Complete the email by choosing the correct alternative from A, B, C or D below.
Sorry I haven’t contracted you (1) ….. last week, but I’ve been very busy. I’ve (2) ….. to Katowice in the south-west of Poland (3) ….. a few days,
and I’ve (4) ….. returned to my hotel in Warsaw, from where I’m sending
this email. I visited several firms when I was in Katowice and one of them looks quite promising. I’ve (5) ….. seen their factory, and I’ve got some product samples to show you.
Unfortunately I haven’t met the guy in charge (6) ….. . He wasn’t there –
he’s (7) ..… to Gdansk and should be back next week.
So, the trip has been quite successful (8) ….. . Have you (9) ..… been to Central Europe? Everything is changing very fast – I’ve (10) ….. seen so much building work going on. Anyway, I’ll email you again later in the week to let you know what’s happening.
The report deals with e-commerce in SE Asia.
(= is about)
I couldn’t do without my personal assistant.
(= function/manage without)