Название: Business Grammar Builder. Деловой английский: грамматика (Л.В. Корухова Н.Н. Новосельцева)
Unit 39 trends, graphs and figures
Graphs and figures A
Here are some common types of graph:
Numbers can be written as symbols (10) or words (ten). In formal writing use symbols for amounts and words for everything else (ordinals like second, two numbers together, estimates, etc). See exercise 4 on page 205.
Note the following ways to say numbers: Currencies:
$6.50 six dollars fifty £6.15 six pounds fifteen
Note that a decimal point is written as a 'dot', not a comma like in some languages.
6.5 six point five 0.25 nought/zero point two five (NOT point twenty five)
A comma can be used to separate thousands from hundreds. Notice the use of
'and' in British English.
6,200 six thousand two hundred (in BrE and AmE)
6,280 six thousand two hundred and eighty (in BrE, but AmE has no 'and' here)
2m two million (NOT millions)
2.5m two point t five I two and a half million
Study these verbs that describe different trends (= tendencies)
Note also: to double, to triple, to halve.
Note these irregular verb forms:
go - went - gone grow - grew - grown rise - rose - risen fall - fell - fallen
Note these nouns: a rise, growth, an improvement, a fall, a drop, a peak, a recovery, a hair, a doubling
Manufacturing industry orders in January rose 11. 1 \% from the same period a year earlier, compared with forecasts of an 11.2\% rise. (Wall Street Journal website)
Note the following prepositions:
Sales increased from $5.4m to $5.8m. (start and finish figures)
Sales increased by $0.4m. (difference between start and finish figures)
There was an increase in sales of $0.4m. (after a noun or noun phrase.)
There was a 3\% increase in sales. (before the thing that is changing)
Verbs and objects C
It is important to use verbs in the right way. Study these three groups. Transitive verbs are always followed by an object: We'll raise/lower/cut/maintain his salary, (with an object)
His assistant had to fill in for him the last time he was ill.(=to do
Intransitive verbs are never followed by an object: Inflation will
rise/fall/grow/go up. (without an object)
Transitive/Intransitive verbs can be used with or without an object: We'll
increase/decrease/improve/recover our market share, (with an object)
AND Our market share will increase/decrease/improve/recover. (without an object)
Adverbs and adjectives D
We can use adverbs and adjectives to give more details about verbs and nouns.
quickly/quick=rapid change gradually/gradual= constant, regular change steadily/steady=slow, step-by-step change
Amount slightly/slight=small change significantly/significant=large change sharply/sharp=sudden change
Sales grew steadily. There was a steady growth in sales.
Linking words and phrases E
Linking words are useful for describing trends. They can join parts of a sentence or link across sentences. Here are just a few examples:
addition and, in addition
contrast but, although (+ subject + verb), in spite of (+ noun phrase),
reason because (+ subject + verb), because of/due to (+ noun phrase)
result so, therefore
Exercise 1 ( A)
TRENDS, GRAPHS AND FIGURES
Write in words how you would say the numbers in brackets, in British English There is an example in section A and another one below to help you.
Exercise 2 ( A, B, C, D, E)
AC: Right. Before we decide on the conditions for the loan, we need to have a careful look at your business. I've got the sales (1) graph /graphic for last year right here. Um, can you just go through the figures for me?
CW: Of course. As you can see, sales at the start of the year were quite (2) flat/ level, (3) so/although that's not surprising (4) because / due to we always have a quiet period after Christmas.
AC: OK, but there wasn't much of a (5) recover /recovery over the spring period, was there? From your graph I see that at the (6) peak/high in June you were only (7) increased /up (8) by /with two (9) million / millions (10) pounds / of pounds (11) since/on the January figure. What happened?
CW: Well, it ... it was a difficult trading period for us - our main competitor (12)
cut/fell their prices (13) significant/ significantly. (14) However/In spite of in
the second (15) half/halve of the year things started to improve. AC: Um. How did that happen?
CW: Well, we launched a series of new products onto the market, and you'll see that sales (16) rised/rose (17) sharp /sharply over the autumn.
AC: Ah. Oh, yes.
CW: In fact the figure went (18) to /until a little (19) under /over fifteen million by the end of the year. Now, we were very happy with those results. And we
expect the increase (20) of/in sales to continue this year. Our sales forecasts are looking very good.
AC: Um, well, that does look promising. I think we can ...
Capital letters A