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Unit 37 developing an argument 2


 Personal comment A


 There are many words and short phrases that come at the beginning of a sentence and help us to make a personal comment.


Giving your own ideas From my point of view, In my opinion/view, Personally

Information you have heard Apparently, It seems that

Most people know it Clearly, Of course, Obviously

Good/bad luck Luckily, Fortunately, Happily, Sadly, Unfortunately

You are being honest To be honest/frank, Actually Frankly


Fortunately, there are plenty of signs that Mexico may finally have reached a new level of political and economic maturity. (Global Business Magazine website)


 Other words used to make a personal comment include: admittedly coincidentally curiously, incredibly, interestingly, ironically, naturally, paradoxically, predictably, significantly, surprisingly, I unbelievably, understandably, unexpectedly.


 If you want to give your ideas from one particular point of view you can use a phrase like: Technically (speaking), Scientifically (speaking), From a financial/technical point of view, etc.


 Other linking words and phrases B


 Study this list of common linking words and phrases used in speech. Giving the most important example or situation Especially, In particular, Above all Correcting yourself / mean, Or rather

Supporting a previous statement After all

Changing the subject (informal) By the way, So, Anyway

Changing the subject (more formal) In relation to, As regards, Moving on to, As far as ... is concerned

Dismissing something/preparing to finish Anyway



Hes never held down a job for longer than a few weeks.(=to succeed in keeping a job for a fairly long period of time)

 Structures to focus on important information C


 We can focus on important information with the structure The + noun + is. The second the sentence is usually a 'that' clause or a 'wh-' question (which, what, when, how, etc) The thing is (that) the whole idea is just too risky. The thing is, how much money will all this cost?


Nouns used with this structure include: answer, fact, point, problem, question, solution, trouble, truth.

The question is, what are we going to do about it?

The trouble is (that) it's going to be very expensive.


 We can focus on important information using a clause that begins with what:

What we need is a few days to think about this in more detail.


 At the end, in the end, at last D


 The phrases at the end, in the end and at last do not have the same meaning


At the end refers to a point in time


In the end means 'after a lot of time' or 'eventually'


At last makes a comment that we are pleased now because a long wait has ended


I spoke for 20 minutes, but there were a lot of questions at the end.


 If, unless, otherwise E


 Conditionals with If are important for developing an argument. The linking words unless and otherwise have the meaning 'if not'. Look at the next three examples which all have the same meaning:


If we don't pay the invoice now, they'll cut back our credit.

Unless we pay the invoice now, they'll cut back our credit.

We should pay the invoice now, otherwise they'll cut back our credit.


 Abbreviations in written English F


 Note the following abbreviations which are common in written English:


ie = that is to say (from the Latin 'id est') eg


eg = for example (from the Latin 'exempli gratia')


NB = note (from the Latin 'nota bene')



The company is in deep trouble-they need to raise £15 million to hold off theircreditors.(=to prevent someone from being successful when they are trying to attack you, defeat you, or cause you problems)



Exercise 1 ( A, B, C, D,E,F)

Underline the correct words.


1 I like all the marketing ideas, but in particular/in particularly the free samples.

2 From our point of view/In our point of view that would not be a good solution.

3 It seems/Apparently, the Board is going to appoint a new CEO.

4 It seems that/Apparently that the Board is going to appoint a new CEC.

5 Fortunately/With good fortune she wasn't listening.

6 Actually/Truly, I've never really trusted him.

7 Moving on/Moving on to the question of finance, we'll need to raise about $2m.

8 Frankie's managed to get a job at last/in the end.

10 Unless/Otherwise we decide within the next few weeks it'll be too late.

11 It'll be too late unless/otherwise we decide within the next few weeks.

12 We must decide within the next few weeks, unless/otherwise it'll be too late.

13 Europe's three biggest economies, e.g. Germany, France and the UK, are all growing strongly.


Exercise 2 (A, B, D )unit 36

Underline the correct words in this presentation about robotics. This exercise includes some revision of unit 36.


(1) First of all/After all. I'd like to thank Keiko Ishida for her kind words of introduction, and for inviting me here to speak to you this morning. The title of my talk is 'The Age of the Robot', and I'll be talking today about robotics, and (2) anyway/in particular their commercial exploitation. (3) Especially/Clearly there's huge interest in the subject, as can be seen by the number of people in the audience today, and this is not surprising as we predict that over the next decade robotics is going to be one of the world's fastest growing industries. (4) To give an example/However, we predict that health-care robots in Japan alone will be a $1 billion market by 2010. They'll be present in hospitals and nursing homes, reminding patients to take medicines, delivering food trays, cleaning, supporting patients who have problems walking, and doing almost everything else (5) except for/instead of peeling the grapes! (6) As far as the general public is concerned/Concerning the general public, Sony Corporation thinks that the best place to launch the robot revolution is home entertainment, because singing and dancing robots don't do anything essential and it's OK if they make a mistake sometimes. (7) Especially/Furthermore, home entertainment is likely to be the biggest market (8) eventually/at last, with some households having two or three robots, just like they have PCs today. (9) As a matter of fact/Moving on all tie leading players (10) such as/for example Matsushita, NEC and Omron are investing tens of millions of dollars in the development of personal robots.

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