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Unit 1 present time 1




 Present Simple: form A



 The Present Simple is formed with the infinitive form of the verb. We add -s

for the third person singular he/she/it.

I/you/we/they work here. He/she/it works here.


 Negatives are formed with do/does not. In speech and informal writing we use contractions.

I/you/we/they do not (dont) work here.

He/she/it does not (doesnt) work here.


 Questions are formed with the auxiliary verb do/does and the infinitive.

Short answers to yes/no questions repeat the auxiliary.

A: Do you work here? A: Does she work here?

B: Yes, I do. / No, I dont. B: Yes, she does. / No, she doesnt.


 Present Simple: uses B


 We use the Present Simple for permanent facts.

In finance, p/e stands for price/earnings ratio.


 We use the Present Simple for actions and situations that are regularly true.

We offer a full range of financial products.


 We use the Present Simple for actions that are repeated regularly over a long period of time, for example habits and routines.

At Union Investment about half of the customers invest a regular amount

every month.


 Present Simple: time expressions C


 We often use frequency adverbs with the present simple: always, often, usually, normally, sometimes, occasionally, rarely, not often, hardly ever, never.

Terry Smith, the chief executive of Collins Stewart, usually rises at 6 am.


 Note the position of frequency adverbs:


Before the main verb: I often take (I dont often take) the Eurostar to Brussels.


Have you backed the data up?

(= made a copy on your computer)

After the verb be: Im usually (Im not usually) nervous before a presentation.


 Adverb phrases like every day, once a year, most of the time, from time to time, now and then come at the beginning or end of the sentence:

Terry Smith travels to his New York office once a month.

 We also use the Present Simple after these future time expressions: when, after, before, unless, in case, as soon as, until, by the time, the next time.




 Present Continuous: form D


 The Present Continuous is formed with the auxiliary verb be and the ing

form of the main verb.

E-Commerce Service is setting up online stores, handling product delivery and even administrating Internet customers credit card numbers.


In speech and informal writing we use contractions. Negatives are formed with the verb be + not.

She is (shes) working here. Shes not / She isnt working here.


 Questions are formed by inverting the subject and the auxiliary be. Short answers to yes/no questions repeat the auxiliary.

A: Are you working here?

B: Yes, I am. / No, Im not.


 Present Continuous: uses E


 We use the Present Continuous to talk about temporary actions and situations that are happening now.


 The action or situation may be in progress now, at the moment of speaking:

Sorry, Mr Clark cant see you at the moment. Hes talking to a customer.


 The action or situation may be happening around now, even if it is not better happening exactly at the moment of speaking:

Americas powerful online merchants are moving eastward, to the new Net market in Europe. Theyre opening offices in Londons Canary Wharf

and buying billboards in Barcelona.


 The action or situation may be a current trend:

Computer games are getting better every year.


Will you back me up in the meeting?

(= support, provide evidence for)

Present Continuous:time expressions F


../ The Present Continuous is often used with these time expressions: now, at the moment, nowadays, currently, these days, right now.

Franchising in the United States has been growing steadily since the 1950s and this concept is now providing business opportunities in more than 75 different industries.



They had to cut their advertising budget back.

(=spend less on)



Exercise 1 (A, D)

Underline the correct words.


1 You often work / Do you often work at the weekends?

2 I dont know / not know why your invoice hasnt been paid. Ill try to find out.

3 Excuse me, does you know / do you know if this is the way to the IT seminar?

4 Sorry, that projector dont work / doesnt work. Use this one instead.

5 A: Do you know new sales rep Marta?

B: Yes, I do. / Yes, I know.

6 A: Is that Linda Napier over there?

B: Yes, she works / she do work here.

7 I writing / Im writing the report at the moment. It should be ready tomorrow.

8 They not replying / Theyre not replying to my email. Ill have to phone them.

9 Why is there such a long delay? What is happening? / is happen?

10 You are enjoying / Are you enjoying this conference?

11 Can Karen call you back? Shes speak / Shes speaking on another line.

12 A: Is Sarah Kennedy expecting me?

B: Yes, shes expecting. / Yes, she is.


Exercise 2 (C)

Decide which word order is the most usual, a) or b).


1 a) I every day arrive at the office at about nine. b) Every day I arrive at the office at about nine.

2 a) I always check my email before doing anything else. b) Always I check my email before doing anything else.

3 a) This usually takes a lot of time as I receive so many. b) This takes a lot of time usually as I receive so many.

4 a) Most of the time the emails are not very urgent. b) The emails are most of the time not very urgent.

5 a) I quite often get junk email from companies I dont know about. b) I get quite often junk email from companies I dont know about.

6 a) I about once a month delete all my junk mail. b) I delete all my junk mail about once a month.



Our lawyers will draw a new contract up.

(= think about and then write)

Exercise 3 (D, E)

Complete this newspaper article about the Brazilian company Gerdau by using the words from the list below. Each set of words fills two spaces.













is getting/right


is raising/plants

is beginning/expectations is modernizing/law


Gerdau: a Brazilian success story

Gerdau, the Brazilian

steel maker, (1a) .. one of Latin Americas most successful (1b) .. . It

(2a) .. productivity in its (2b) ..; it (3a) ..

the price and timing of its takeovers of smaller companies (3b) .. ; and, most important, it (4a)

.. to understand

investors (4b) .. . Investors

want a firm thats

focused and transparent, with a simple share structure, and thats

exactly what Gerdau gives them.

The only problem in the short term is a problem of success. Gerdau (5a) .. a 50\% (5b) .. in its domestic market, and so it

(6a) .. the (6b) .. of

Cade, the monopolies


These days its much easier to do business in Brazil. The government is

simplifying the company- tax structure, it (7a) the

labour market more (7b)

.. by changing the restrictive labour laws, and it (8a) company (8b)

.. in general.


Exercise 4 (A, B)

Jane introduces Claude to João in London. Complete the dialogue by putting each

of the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the Present Simple.


Jane: Claude, (1) .. (you / know) João? João (2) .. (be) from brazil, but he worked with me in Paris last year. He (3) .. (know) a lot about your line of work.

Claude: Really! Well I (4) .. (be) very pleased to meet you, João. João: Pleased to meet you too, Claude.

Claude: So, what exactly (5) .. (you / do)?

João: I (6) .. (work) in the oil industry as a market analyst.

Claude: Oh, so you (7) .. (make) decisions about levels of production?

João: No, I (8) .. (not make) any decisions really. My job (9) .. (involve)

studying market trends and giving advice on levels of production. Claude: Still, thats a lot of responsibility.

João: Well, yes, but Brazil (10) .. (not / be) a major producer like Saudi

Arabia. What about you?


Claude: I work for a French company that (11) .. (supply) specialised


Can you drop me off at the station?

(= take me in your car and leave me)




Joao: Claude:

equipment to the oil industry. We (12) ..... (be) one of the biggest companies in our market.

Oh, really? And (13) ..... (you I often I come) to London?

Yes, quite often. My company (14) ..... (have) an office here. It (15) ..... (not I take) long to get here now, if you travel by Eurostar. Could I give you my card?


Could you fill this form in, please?

(=complete by writing information)

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