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Unit 36 developing an argument 1

 

 Words meaning and , but and so A

 

 We can use longer words and phrases with the same meaning to link both across sentences and within more complex sentences.

And: In addition, Besides, Moreover, Furthermore

But: However, Nevertheless, On the other hand

So : Therefore, Consequently, As a result

 

These words and phrases are typical of formal speech (for example presentations) and writing. They usually come at the start of a sentence and have a comma afterwards, but can come after a comma in the middle of a sentence.

Supplier A is cheaper, and their delivery times are good. However, supplier

has better quality products and they have a good reputation in the market.

 

 Examples: for example, for instance, such as B

 

 We can use for example or for instance. Note the possible positions. Our costs have gone up. For example, the cost of steel has nearly doubled. Our costs have gone up. The cost of steel, for example, has nearly doubled.

 

 We use such as in the middle of a sentence to give examples. It is the same as

'like'. Such as is followed by a noun phrase, not a whole clause. Some delays,

such as strikes or bad weather, are beyond our control.

 

 Additional/real information: in fact, actually C

 

 We use In fact, Actually or As a matter of fact to add a piece of information to what we just said. The second piece of information gives more details. We have plenty in stock. In fact/As a matter of fact, we could deliver tomorrow. We also use these words to emphasise what the real situation is. This is surprising or differ what people imagine. / thought we had some in stock, but in fact/actually we don't.

 

 Sequence: first of all, as well as this, finally D

 

 We can use First, Firstly, First of all to begin a series of points in a formal argument. For other numbered points we say Second, Secondly, etc. To add a point without numbering we can say As well as this, Besides this or In addition. At the end we can say Finally. Why choose the Czech Republic? Well, first of all, it has lower labour costs than other neighbouring countries, and secondly, it has a stable currency. As well as this, it has a trained workforce with good labour relations, and finally, it has a strong local market.

 To finish one point we can say Overall or Taking everything into consideration.

Overall, a record 61\% of the adult population is employed or looking for

work, mainly because female participation in the labor force has jumped over the last two decades. (Business Week website)

 

To finish a formal speech we can say In conclusion.

In conclusion, I'd just like to thank you all very much for coming, and I look forward to seeing you again at our next meeting on 31 September.

 

 Generalising: in general, on the whole E

 

 There are many words and phrases we can use to talk generally." In general, On the whole, As a rule, Typically, All in all, Basically, Overall, Broadly Speaking. Organizations typically have five 'customer' relationships: customers, business partners, suppliers, employees, and shareholders, (e-business advisor website)

 

 If we want to make a balanced argument we often use one of these phrases followed by a contrasting idea with a word like but. In general the Japanese economy has not been very dynamic over recent years. However, some technology and telecom companies are growing very fast. On the whole, I think you're right, although I disagree with you about the level of risk.

 

 Summarising: so, to sum up, in summary F

 

 We can use So, In short, To put it simply To sum up and In summary to summarise. To put it simply, food processors will lose competitiveness as a direct result of EU membership. (Business Central Europe website)

 

 Either... or..., instead of, except for G

 

 We use either to begin a list of possibilities. We do not begin with or. The other possibilities are introduced with or. Either we could cancel the product launch, or postpone it.

 

But in speech we can begin with or to complete the other person's idea. A: We could just cancel the launch.' : Or perhaps postpone it.'

 

 We use instead (of) to mean 'in the place of something else'. At the end of a sentence, instead is used without of. Can we have the meeting on Friday instead of Thursday? Thursday is no good? OK, can we have it on Friday instead?

 

 

 
 We use except, except for or apart from to mean 'not including'. / have contacted everyone except (for) Margaret.

 

Have you sent off that application form yet?(=to send something somewhere by email)

PRACTICE DEVELOPING AN ARGUMENT 1

 

Exercise 1 (A, B, C, D, E, G)

Underline the correct words.

 

1 If registered mail is too slow, we could use a courier instead/instead of.

2 All commodity prices rose last week, also/except gold.

3 We can either/or wait for a train, or go by taxi.

4 As a matter of fact/On the whole stocks are riskier than bonds, but stocks can give a better return the long term.

5 Investment in areas for example/such as biotechnology can be risky.

6 Investment in some areas, for example/such as biotechnology, can be risky.

7 Can we send an email except for/instead of a fax?

 

Exercise 2 (A, B, C, D, E, F, G)

Complete each sentence with a word or phrase from the list below. actually as well as this either except instead such as therefore nevertheless so in general

 

1 People think it's expensive, but ..... over the long term it isn't.

2 The restaurant is open every day ..... Monday.

3 She's out of the country and ..... unable to attend the meeting.

4 I was going on Tuesday, but now I'm going on Monday .

5 ..... I think the meeting went very well, although we didn't manage to agree on composition of the new team.

6 Some areas, ..... recruitment, are outsourced to other companies.

7 I'm sorry ..... you accept this price, or we can't do business.

8 It's reliable, safe and easy to use ...... , it's excellent value for money.

9 It's reliable, safe and easy to use ...... , the maintenance costs can be quite high.

10 ..... , in short, it's reliable, safe and easy to use.

 

Exercise 3 (A, B, E)

Put four commas in this short paragraph.

 

In general taking an MBA is a good idea for an ambitious young professional however you do have ton some sacrifices. You miss out on two years' valuable work experience for example and it can be very expensive.

 

 

 
I would have called you earlier but Ive been absolutely snowed under.(=to have so much work, so many letters, phone calls etc, that it is difficult to deal with everything)

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