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Unit 35 linking words
We use some linking words to join parts of sentences. They give a structure to the sentence. Examples include and, but, because, so.
We use other linking words and phrases to make a link across sentences and paragraphs. They j give a structure to our whole argument. Examples include Firstly, In general, Actually, In other words.
Addition: and, both, too, also, etc B
We use and to join words or parts of sentences. To emphasise the fact that there are two things we can use both ... and....
/ need to call Andy and find out when he's free to have a meeting. I need to call
both Andy and Helen.
We use too, as well, as well as and also to add another factor say that something happens at the same time. Note the positions. / need to call Andy, Kate and Helen too/as well. I need to call Andy and Kate as well as Helen. I need to
call Andy, Kate and also Helen.
Contrast: but, yet and although C
We use but and although to make a contrast. Although is typical of more careful or formal speech or writing. In theory it seems like a good idea, but I don't think it'll work in practice. In theory it seems like a good idea, although I don't think it will work in practice.
The clause with although can come at the beginning. Although it seems like a good idea, I don't think it will work in practice.
We can emphasise but and although with still and anyway. I wasn't feeling very well, but I still went to work.
We can use yet in place of 'but' in writing.
Contrast: though and even though D
We can use though in informal speech and writing like although. Though it seems like a good idea, I don't think it'll work in practice.
With though we often use two separate sentences and put though at the end. It seems like a good idea. I don't think it'll work in practice, though.
(=to continue to do something until it finishes, even if this is difficult)
We can use even though like although to give a stronger contrast.
Even though I wasn't feeling very well, I still went to work.
Contrast: whereas E
We can use whereas in formal speech and writing to compare two facts and emphasise the difference between them. The clause with whereas can come at the beginning or end. Indonesia has a lot of natural resources, whereas Singapore has none.
Although or whereas? F
Although in a sentence suggests surprise. But the clause with although does not always contain the surprising information - usually it is the clause that comes second that seems surprising. We had a reasonable year in Asia, although sales fell a little in Japan A/though sales fell a little in Japan, we had a reasonable year in the res: of Asia.
Whereas simply compares two facts. It makes a strong contrast, but there is less suggestion of surprise. We had a reasonable year in Asia, whereas sales in Europe were guite disappointing.
We can use while like although or whereas. While there are still some issues to resolve, I think we should go ahead. (like 'although') Inflation rose by 3\% last year, while house prices went up 6\%.(like whereas')
Contrast: despite/in spite of G
Despite and in spite of are like although, but they are followed by a noun or noun phrase. Although I was ill, I went to work. = In spite of my illness, I went to work. Although sales increased, profits fell. = Despite the increase in sales, profits fell.
Remember that a gerund (verb with -ing) can act as a noun. In spite of feeling
ill, I went to work.
Reason: because, as, since H
We use because, as and since when we want to explain the reason for something. As and since are more common in formal speech and writing. I'm calling to complain because the goods are damaged.
As and since can come at the beginning of the sentence. Normally we do not begin sentences with because, but this is possible in informal speech. As/since the goods were damaged on arrival, I am returning them.
Result: so I
We use so to express a result. Note the relation between because and so: I'm calling to complain because the goods are damaged. (reason) The goods are damaged, so I'm calling to complain. (result)
Purpose: to and for J
We use the to infinitive to express purpose, to say why we do things.
He went to the airport to meet Mr Li.
We can use in order to or so as to in place of to. They are more formal. The
CEO called a press conference in order to explain the merger.
We can use the negative in order not to or so as not to. We cannot use not to on its own. I'll call a taxi so as not to miss my flight.
We can use for followed by a noun to say why we do something. He went to the airport for a meeting with Mr Li. (= to have a meeting)
Purpose: so that K
We can use so (that) to express purpose. After so (that) we use subject + verb. I guess the question is how do you develop your company so that it can evolve in response to changing customer expectations, (e-business advisor website)
For a present purpose we use the present simple, will or can. I'll send it by courier so (that) it gets/it'll get to you on time.
For a past purpose we use the past simple, would or could. I sent it by courier yesterday so (that) it got/it'd get to you on time.
If the subject of the first part of the sentence and the subject of the purpose clause are different, we can't use to. We have to use so (that). I'm calling to talk about the sales conference. (same subject) I'm calling so (that) we can talk about the sales conference. (different subject)
Manner: as, as if and like L
We can use as or like before a clause (subject + verb) to mean 'in the way that'.
In this case there is no difference in meaning, but as is more formal. He runs the company as/like his father used to.
We can use as if or like before a clause to say how someone or something feels, looks, sounds or behaves. / have a bit of a temperature. I feel as if/like I should go home.
Exercise 1 ( C, D, E, F, G)
Underline the correct words.
PRACTICE LINKING WORDS
1 Although/But I like this company, I probably won't work here long.
2 In spite of/Although their shares are rising, their future is still uncertain.
3 Kate gave a good presentation, although/despite having very little time to prepare.
4 I read the book you suggested. I didn't enjoy it, although/though.
5 I didn't have much time, but/whereas I managed to visit the whole site.
6 Nowadays we have very few strikes, but/whereas ten years ago we had a lot.
7 We weren't sure whether to go ahead with the launch, but we did it still/anyway.
Exercise 2 (B)
Rewrite each sentence in two ways so it has a similar meaning to the first sentence each time. Use the word/s in brackets.
1 Paula visited both the Madrid office and the Barcelona office.
A) (too) ..... .
B) (as well as) ..... .
2 We can handle the transport arrangements and the insurance.
A) (also) ..... . B) (both) ..... .
3 I want the sales figures for October and November.
A) (as well) ..... . B) (as well as) ..... .
Exercise 3 (C, D,E, F, G)
Complete the sentences with one of these words or phrases: although, anyway but, in spite of, still, though, whereas. Use each word or phrase once only.
1 Carol didn't recognise Mark Lamer, ..... she had met him before.
2 I don't like karaoke bars, ..... I went with my Japanese clients anyway.
3 I offered my best price, but they ..... didn't seem interested.
4 I think we'll have to change our suppliers. It's a pity, ..... .
5 ..... the early problems, the project has been a great success.
6 Spain is a mature market, ..... in Portugal there is still room for growth.
7 We haven't got all the facts, but it's worth discussing it ..... .
Exercise 4 (H, I)
Complete the second sentence so it has a similar meaning to the first sentence and contains the word in brackets.
1 It was inconvenient for everyone, so the meeting was postponed, (as) As ..... .
2 I sent Karen a copy of the minutes because she missed the meeting, (so) Karen missed the meeting, ..... .
3 I had a lot of paperwork to do, so I finished work late, (because) I finished work late ..... .
4 He doesn't know, so I'll ask someone else, (since)
Since ..... .
Exercise 5 (J, K)
Underline the correct word.
1 We're not in this business just to make/for to make short-term profit.
2 I'll explain in more detail so/that our objectives are clear.
3 I wrote the date in my diary so that/to I wouldn't forget the meeting this morning.
4 He resigned in order to/for spend more time with his family.
5 Jack came to me in order to/for advice.
6 We'll agree to your offer so that we can/could close the deal.
7 We agreed to their offer so that we can/could close the deal.
8 She rechecked the figures so that the auditors won't/wouldn't find any errors when they came.
9 I'll recheck the figures so that the auditors won't/wouldn't find any errors when they come.
10 Many visitors come here to see/for to see our automated production line.
Exercise 6 (L)
Complete the sentences with as or like, or put as/like if both are possible.
1 While I was at university I sometimes worked ..... a waiter.
2 The negotiations are going very slowly, ..... I expected.
3 Anna's so funny! She's ..... a comedian.
4 We'll send the order in two consignments, ..... we agreed in the meeting.
5 This crisis is not ..... the last one. It's worse!
6 I'm lucky. I have a small room at home that I use ..... my study.