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Unit 30 pronouns

 

 Indefinite pronouns A

 

People:

someone/somebody

anyone /anybody

 

everyone/everybody

no one/nobody

Things:

something

anything

everything

nothing

Places:

somewhere

anywhere

everywhere

nowhere

Time:

sometime

anytime

(all the time)

(never)

 

 
 Words like everyone, anything, etc, are called indefinite pronouns. They refer to people, things or places without saying exactly who, what or where they are.

 

 There is no difference between the -one forms and the -body forms.

 

 Indefinite pronouns are followed by a singular verb, but we refer back to them in a sentence with they/them/their. Someone is waiting for you in reception. I told them you wouldn't be long. Well, I suppose that everyone is ready for their coffee break now?

 

 Someone/anyone, etc B

 

 AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES. Some- is very common in affirmative sentences: There's someone waiting in reception. Any- is also common, particularly when we want to show that there is no limit to the possibilities: You can fly anywhere you want from here. Compare with 'some': We can bring it to your office sometime tomorrow, (we don't know yet, but we'll tell you) We can bring it to your office anytime tomorrow. (there's no limit - you decide) Any- is common in sentences with if. If there is anything you want to know, just ask.

 

 QUESTIONS. Any- is very common in questions: Does anyone understand the new software? Some- is common with offers and requests: Can I give you a lift somewhere/anywhere? Compare any- and some-. Any- emphasises that there is no limit to the possibilities: Is there something I can do to help? (a normal offer) Is there anything I can do to help? (I'll do whatever I can)

 

 NEGATIVE SENTENCES. Not... any- is very common and means the same as no-: There isn't anybody here with that name. = There is nobody here with that name. Not... some- is rare and has a different meaning to not... any-.

 

 

 
As business was bad, they had to lay off some of their staff.(=to stop employing a worker because there is not enough work for him or her to do)

 

Study the examples: He isn't someone I feel comfortable talking to. (= He isn't a person I feel ...) That isn't something I'd thought about before. (= That isn't a thing I'd thought...)

 

 Everyone / no one, etc. C

 

 Words with every- mean all the people, things or places in a group.

A big 'thank you' to everyone. You all did a wonderful job. We handle

everything for you, from design to delivery.

 

 Every one (with two words) has a different meaning. It means each single one and is used to give emphasis. In pronunciation, both words have equal stress. Every one of our clients is important, even the smallest companies.

 

 Words with no- mean no people, things or places. Nobody phoned while you were out .Meanwhile, Allianz tried to bring Dresdner together with HVB, in which Allianz also has a large stake. Initially, the idea went nowhere because HVB board members opposed it. (Business Week Online website)

 

 Double negatives are not used. There is nothing we can do. OR There isn't anything we can do.

 

 Reflexive pronouns D

 

 The reflexive pronouns are: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves. Note that there is a plural 'you' form. We use a reflexive pronoun if the object of the verb is the same as the subject. Compare: I'm enjoying the trip. I'm enjoying myself.

 

 Some verbs may be reflexive in your language, but are usually not in English.

Examples include: change (clothes), complain, decide, dress, feel, hurry, meet, relax, remember, rest, sit down, stand up, wake up, wash, wonder, worry.

 

 Note that actions that we do to ourselves do not have a reflexive pronoun. When

I got home I washed and changed quickly before going out again.

 

 We can use a reflexive pronoun for emphasis. In pronunciation, we stress self or

selves. I myself haven't seen the new design, but I believe it's very good.

 

 If the meaning is 'without help' or 'alone' we can use by + reflexive pronoun.

Are you doing all the research (by) yourselves? (without help) I wanted to travel to the conference by myself. (alone)

 

 

 
They put down a £10,000 deposit on the house when they bought it.(=to pay part of the total cost or value of something when you arrange to buy it or rent it)

 

 

 

Exercise 1 (A, B, C)

PRACTICE PRONOUNS

Complete the sentences using the most appropriate words from the list below. anyone anything anything everyone everything no one nothing someone something something

 

1 It's just not right. ...... is worrying me about this.

2 The office is empty. There's ..... here except me.

3 I'm sorry, I don't think there's ..... I can do to help you.

4 (the telephone line is dead) Hello? Is there ..... there?

5 ..... seems to be wrong with the printer. It's not working.

6 There's ..... to see you. Shall I ask them to wait?

7 I see that ..... has a copy of the agenda, so let's begin.

8 (before moving on to the next point in a meeting) Is there ..... else?

9 Good, ..... is going according to plan.

10 No, I've decided ..... you could say would make me change my mind.

 

Exercise 2 (B, C)

Underline the correct words.

 

1 We can't blame anyone/no one but ourselves for this mess.

2 There's anything/nothing in the post for you this morning.

3 There isn't anything/nothing in the post for you this morning.

4 Anyone /Someone called for you earlier, but I don't know who.

5 Isn't there anywhere/nowhere to go that's open at this time of night?

6 Can I ask you anything /something?

7 There's anyone I someone on the phone to speak to you.

8 You can do anything / something you want, it won't make any difference.

9 Sorry, I don't know anything/nothing about it.

 

Exercise 3 (D)

Complete the sentences with a word from the list below, in a suitable form, and a reflexive pronoun.

ask blame enjoy express help hurt introduce make prepare teach

 

1 I keep ...... what I would do in his situation.

2 It was a great holiday. We really ..... .

3 James ..... Spanish by listening to cassettes while driving to work.

4 Be careful! It's very heavy! Don't ..... .

5 Paula knows a lot of French, but she can't ..... very easily.

 

 
6

 

Were taking on 50 new staff this year.(=to start to employ someone)

 

7 Ladies and Gentlemen, please ..... to more coffee.

8 Mary ..... for a shock. I'm going to resign.

9 Let me ..... . My name is Susan Conway.

10It wasn't your fault. Don't ..... .

10 Ann and Nick! Great to see you. Come in and ..... at home.

 

Exercise 4 (A, B, C, D)

Underline the correct or most appropriate words.

 

1 No one like/likes to discover hidden costs, does he/do they?

2 I felt/felt myself quite nervous at the start of the presentation, but after a few minutes I

relaxed/relaxed myself.

3 We'll deliver your pizza sometime, somewhere/anytime, anywhere.

4 I remember/remember myself when I first started working here. I always used to

worry/worry myself if I was doing the right thing.

5 The figures in this spreadsheet don't correspond to the ones on the invoices. We're going to have to check everyone/every one.

6 Everyone has/have to meet in the lobby at nine o'clock to collect his/their conference registration forms.

7 Rome isn't somewhere/anywhere near Milan.

8 Rome isn't somewhere/anywhere I'd like to go for holidays in August. It's too hot for me then.

9 Your two colleagues introduced themselves/each other to me yesterday. First I met

Peter, then later I met Susan.

10 Your two colleagues introduced themselves/each other to me yesterday. Peter told me a little about what Susan does, and Susan told me a little about Peter.

 

Exercise 5 (B, C)

Complete the dialogues with the words from the list below.

anyone anything anywhere everyone everything everywhere someone

something somewhere

A

DAVID: I can't find my mobile phone. I've looked (1) ..... I must have put it down

(2)..... , but I just can't remember where. Oh, how annoying! It could be

(3) ..... .

RITA: Perhaps (4) ..... has picked it up by mistake? (5) ..... in the company has the same type of mobile phone. (6) ...... could have picked it up.

 

 

 

 
Fred went into the bosss office and announced:Im hanging it

up.(=to stop doing a particular activity or type of work)

 

B

GUY: Sales have dropped by 50\% in Asia over the last 12 months.

PETRA: There must be (7) ..... we can do to increase sales.

GUY: But what? I've tried (8) ..... .I can't think of (9) ..... else we can do.

 

Exercise 6 (D)

Vicky and her husband Charles are staying in a hotel. Complete what Vicky says by using the verbs in brackets with or without a reflexive pronoun.

 

'Charles, come on, try to (1) .. . (enjoy)! (2) .. (remember) you're on holiday! Look, why don't you (3) ..... (help) to another drink, go on ..... Goodness me, there's Daniel Westlake over there. What on earth is he doing here in Marrakech? Er, have you two (4) ..... (met) before? You know, you'd have a lot in common with Daniel. Why don't you go over there and (5) ..... (introduce) to him? While you do that I'll go back to the room and (6)..... (change) in time for dinner. I don't know. Sometimes I (7) ..... (ask) whether you can ever (8) ..... (relax) when you're away from the office.'

 

 

 

 
Tickets topped off at £75.(=if prices of something top off at a particular level, that is the most expensive price)

 

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