Íàçâàíèå: Business Grammar Builder. Äåëîâîé àíãëèéñêèé: ãðàììàòèêà (Ë.Â. Êîðóõîâà Í.Í. Íîâîñåëüöåâà)
Unit 24 the –ing form
The -ing form can be used as a noun (in this case it is also called a gerund).
Marketing requires careful planning.
It can also be part of a noun phrase.
Combining two financial groups successfully is always a difficult task.
(BusinessWeek Online website)
-ing form as an adjective B
The -ing form can be used like an adjective, before a noun. My working day
starts at nine and finishes around six thirty.
-ing form after prepositions C
We use the -ing form after prepositions.
Wal-Mart became successful by selling high volumes at low prices.
We never launch a new product without doing extensive market research.
We use to + infinitive to explain why we do something (this is called 'the infinitive of purpose'): We're doing this to reduce costs.
But we use to + -ing when to is a preposition: Outdoor posters are an alternative to using expensive TV advertisements.
Some verbs have to used as a preposition.
Examples include: look forward to, object to, be used to, get used to, prefer ..... to ...... , respond to.
I'm looking forward to seeing you next week.
I'm not used to having such a short lunch break.
-ing form used to begin a clause D
An -ing clause can give more information about a noun.
Very few farms are in a position to benefit from the EU market. Look at
Poland, where there are two million farms employing over a quarter of the population, to see the problem at its worst. (Business Central Europe website)
An -ing clause can give the reason for an action in the past. / went over to him, thinking he was the manager, but he said he was a sales assistant. (= because I thought he was the manager)
The negative is formed with not.
Not being used to the company culture, I found it hard to fit in.
An -ing clause can describe a background situation for another action.
Walking into work this morning I met Celia who used to work in Personnel.(=
as I was walking into work)
The negative is formed with not.
I started the job not knowing what to expect.
industry.(=to develop and improve something)
PRACTICE THE ING-FORM
Exercise 1 (A, B)
Match the beginnings of sentences 1-8 with their endings a)-h).
1 Manufacturing in the UK has been a) manufacturing sector.
2 In the UK, the service sector is now b) is now almost completely automated, much more important than the c) manufacturing.
3 In the UK, services are now much d) in decline for many years, more
important than e) need a lot of investment.
4 Our manufacturing process f) concentrated in the Katowice area.
5 We're going to invest heavily g) in manufacturing over the next few years.
6 Car manufacturing in Poland is h) lot of investment.
7 Developing and promoting Poland's manufacturing base will
8 Developing manufacturing in Poland will need
Exercise 2 (A,B)
For each sentence in exercise 1 above, decide if the word manufacturing is a noun or an adjective.
Noun: ..... Adjective: .....
Exercise 3 (B)
Complete the sentences with adjectives formed from the verbs in the list below in their -ing form.
tire welcome confuse last interest wear cut shop sell meet
1 It's been a very ..... day, I need a drink to help me relax.
2 There's a ..... point in front of the ticket office. I'll see you there at six.
3 They're building a new ..... centre by the motorway exit.
4 Her presentation was very ..... , although perhaps a little ..... for who were new to the subject.
5 This carpet is very hard - ..... , and so it will be very long - ..... .
6 The new reception area should be ..... , not cold and formal like before.
Department.(=to stop a business or an organization)
7 This is ..... - edge technology, you won't find it anywhere else in Europe.
8 Its design is one of its strongest ..... points.
Exercise 4 (C)
Underline the correct words.
1 Thanks for calling, and I look forward to meeting/meet you at the conference.
2 Thanks for calling, and I hope to meeting /meet you at the conference.
3 I'm expecting to taking/take the train to work when I move into the new house.
4 I don't object to taking/take the train, but I prefer coming to work by car.
5 I can help you with your spreadsheet, I'm used to working/work with Excel.
6 When I was in my twenties I used to working/work as a sales consultant.
Exercise 5 (C)
Complete each sentence by choosing a preposition from list A followed by an - ing form from list B.
A: after without by of before instead of
B: leaving using being going increasing taking over
1 ..... ..... university I worked in IT recruitment for a while.
2 I was aware ..... very nervous at the start of my presentation.
3 Vodafone grew ..... local operators.
4 ..... on, I'd just like to look at this graph in a little more detail.
5 If it's urgent I could take it there myself ..... a courier.
6 The Fed is hoping to reduce inflation ..... interest rates.
Exercise 6 (D)
Cross out two unnecessary words in each sentence.
1 A lot of the firms which are developing Bluetooth are based in Cambridge.
2 The woman who is replacing Kay Walker used to work at Saachi.
3 The thing that is worrying me most is the fluctuation in oil prices.
4 The visitors who are coming this afternoon are a Japanese Trade Delegation.
Exercise 7 (D)
Match the beginnings of sentences 1-6 with the most appropriate ending a)-f).
1 Speaking to Mike, a) he gave his credit card to the waiter.
2 So, concluding my presentation, b) I realised that the situation was hopeless
During the recession a lot of business had to cut back.(=to reduce the amount of money that you spend, or the amount of something that you use)
4 Of course I didn't say anything, d) not regretting my actions for one moment.
5 I just took it all for granted, e) not wishing to offend him.
6 I resigned the next week, f) not appreciating the work that was involved.
Exercise 8 (D)
Rewrite the underlined part of each sentence using an -ing clause. Note that in some examples there is a negative form.
1 I got to the airport at ten because I expected the flight to arrive on time.
I got to the airport at ten , ..... .
2 I didn't understand the language so I found it hard to get around on my own.
..... , found it hard to get around on my own.
3 I invested £5,000 in a China fund because I hoped that the market would go up.
I invested £5,000 in a China fund, ..... .
4 As I wasn't an experienced negotiator I think I made too many concessions.
..... , I think I made too many concessions.
5 I assumed she wouldn't mind so I asked her about her annual salary.
..... , I asked her about her annual salary.
6 I said yes because I didn't know it would create so many problems.
I said yes, ..... .