Íàçâàíèå: Business Grammar Builder. Äåëîâîé àíãëèéñêèé: ãðàììàòèêà (Ë.Â. Êîðóõîâà Í.Í. Íîâîñåëüöåâà)
Unit 23 verbs and objects
Transitive and intransitive verbs A
Verbs in English can either be transitive or intransitive. This information is shown in dictionaries with the letters T or I.
Transitive verbs B
Transitive verbs are followed by an object. The object can take a variety of forms:
noun: Do you sell stamps?
pronoun: It’s too expensive. I can’t afford it.
reflexive pronoun: I enjoyed myself at the cocktail party yesterday afternoon.
clause: I decided that it was too risky.
A transitive verb is not complete without an object.
Intransitive verbs C
Intransitive verbs do not take an object.
Her flight has arrived. /Her flight arrives at Heathrow. /Her flight arrives before mine. (But NOT Her flight arrives Heathrow.)
Our sales in Turkey fell. /Our sales fell last year. /Our sales fell dramatically in the US. (But NOT Our company tell its sales last year.)
Intransitive verbs include: ache, appear, arrive, come, depart, disappear, exist, fall, go, happen, live, occur, rain, remain, rise, sleep, speak, wait, walk, work.
Verbs with both transitive and intransitive forms D
Many verbs can have both a transitive and intransitive form.
I opened the door. The door opened.
We began the meeting. The meeting began.
Often you can leave out the object if it is obvious because of the situation or because you have already mentioned it.
I parked (my car) in front of your office.
OK, I think I understand (it) now.
Verbs with both forms include: accept, answer, ask, begin, break, change,
choose, close, cook, decrease, drop, eat, end, explain, finish, forget, grow, help, improve, increase, know, learn, leave, meet, move, open, park, phone, read, remember, see, start, stop, turn, understand, watch, win, write.
Many verbs are transitive with one meaning and intransitive with another.
He took off his jacket. (take off (T) = to remove an item of clothing)
The plane took off at 3 pm. (take off (I) = to leave the ground and start flying)
I’ve recovered the files from the hard disk. (recover (T) = to get back something that was lost)
The economy is recovering slowly. (recover (I) = to return to normal after some trouble)
Verb + two objects E
Some verbs can have two objects, an indirect object (a person who receives something) direct object (the thing someone gives).
After a lot of negotiation they offered (IO) us (DO) a better deal. They paid (IO) the consultants (DO) a lot of money.
She sends (IO) you (DO) her best regards.
Verbs like this include: award, bring, buy, cause, cost, email, fine, give, hand, leave, lend, make, offer, owe, pass, pay, post, promise, read, refuse, sell, send, show, take, teach, tell, write.
Notice that in the examples above we do not use to.
NOT they offered to us a better deal.
NOT they paid to the consultants a lot of money.
You can often put the direct object first, and in this case you use to + indirect object. This happens when we want to give special importance to the indirect object.
They offered (DO) a better deal (IO) to our competitors.
They paid (DO) a lot of money (IO) to the consultants who came here last
She sends (DO) her best regards (IO) to you and your family.
Banks lend (DO) money (IO) to those businesses that explain how the funds will be repaid.
This structure is also common when both objects are pronouns.
They offered (DO) it (IO) to us.
Some verbs must have to + indirect object. They cannot have the structure in the first paragraph above.
She explained (DO) the situation (IO) to me. (NOT explained mo the situation)
I recommend (DO) the fish (IO) to you. (NOT recommend you the fish)
He suggested (DO) another solution (IO) to us. (NOT suggested us another solution)
The spokesman for Metro AG didn’t mention (IO) to reporters (DO) their plans to sell part of the department store chain Kaufhof.)
Verbs in this group include: admit, announce, demonstrate, describe,
explain, introduce, mention, propose, prove, recommend, repeat, report, say, suggest.
Verb + two objects using for F
With some verbs we use for to introduce the indirect object instead of to.
I’ve brought you a present. I’ve brought a present for you.
I’ve left you the report. I’ve left the report for you on your desk.
I’ll reserve us a table. I’ll reserve a table for six people.
Verbs with two objects that use for include: book, bring, build, buy, call, change, charge, choose, cook, cut, do, fetch, find, fix, get, keep, leave, make, order, prepare, reserve, save
(= recognize the difference)
PRACTICE VERBS AND OBJECTS
Exercise 1 (A, B, C)
Tick () the sentences that are correct and cross (x) the ones that are incomplete.
Exercise 2 (A, B, C)
Tick () the sentences that are correct and cross (õ) the ones that are incorrect.
Exercise 3 (D)
Each pair of sentences has the same verb. Mark the sentence T if it is used transitively or I if it used intransitively. Underline the object in the transitive sentences.
(= continue to do or improve)
1 a) Can you see the woman in the blue suit over there?
b) So you’re going to cancel your order. I see.
2 a) I had to run to the post office.
b) He runs the marketing department.
3 a) Our family has managed this hotel for three generations. b) We managed very well while our boss was on holiday.
4 a) She lost her job last month when they restructured the company.
b) Real Madrid lost by two goals to one.
5 a) The sales target was set at 8 million this year but I think we’ll miss. b) I enjoy working abroad, but I miss my family and friends.
6 a) Our sales dropped by 12\% last year.
b) I dropped my laptop on the floor, but I don’t think it’s broken.
7 a) Susan, do you know Dr Goschel from our Munich office?
b) It’s going to be more expensive. I know.
8 a) You must invest if you want your business to grow.
b) Farmers who grew olives used to get a lot of subsidies from the EU.
Exercise 4 (E)
Underline the correct words.
1 He lent me / lent to me the article about Turkey from The Economist.
2 I’m going to suggest them / suggest to them that we postpone the meeting.
3 They promised me / promised to me a full refund if I wasn’t satisfied.
4 I explained them / explained to them that I was just following company policy.
5 This delay is causing us problems / causing problems to us.
6 I recommend you the chicken / the chicken to you. It’s usually very good in here.
7 I reported the fault to the technician / to the technician the fault yesterday.
8 In the end I sold them / sold to them the more expensive model.
9 I described them the whole situation / the whole situation to them in great detail.
10 She told me / told to me that your trip to Seoul was very successful.
11 Jennifer, can I introduce you Joseph Lee / introduce you to Joseph Lee.
12 I showed the visitors / showed to the visitors our new assembly line.
(= to have a serious effect)
Exercise 5 (E)
Put the words and phrases into the correct order to make a sentence.
1 I / to Jackie from the marketing department / lent / the article
2 I / Jackie / lent / the article about marketing
3 I / an email / them / sent / yesterday
4 I / an email / to their customer services department / sent / yesterday
5 I / the display model that’s been in the window / sold / him
6 I / the display model / sold / to a woman who came in this morning
7 I / my report / her / this morning / gave
8 I / my report / gave / to her secretary / this morning
Exercise 6 (E, F)
Complete the sentences with either to or for.
1 They emailed their reply .…. us this morning. I’ve left a copy ..… you on your desk.
2 Could you give this ….. my secretary and ask her to make some coffee ….. our
3 I’ve prepared a report ….. the Board meeting. Here, I’ll show it ..… you.
4 Please write a letter ….. our suppliers in Lodz and save a copy ….. our fifes.
5 if you leave a message ….. her on this notepad, I’ll take it ….. her when the meeting.
6 I’ll bring some samples ….. the office ….. you.
7 It’ll cause damage ….. the company if we choose the wrong location.
8 Mary has just left. Hand the documents ….. me and I’ll keep them ….. her.
-ing form as a noun A